|May 20, 2011
|May 19, 2015
|September 2016 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
|Response to Leucine in Transfusion dependent patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia [ Time Frame: Patients will take leucine for 9 months. The study is expected to take 12-15 months to complete. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
The primary outcome is the type of response observed at 9 months (and 6 months). Response to treatment can be one of the following:
- Complete response (CR): Hb > 9 gm/dL and transfusion-independence as defined in DBA
- Partial response (PR): Hb < 9 gm/dL and increased reticulocyte count to greater than 1% and any increase in transfusion interval from baseline. (Baseline reticulocytes range from 0.1 to 0.5 and transfusions are usually performed every 3 weeks. An increase of reticulocyte counts to over 1 to 1.5% and any increase in transfusion interval will be considered a PR.)
- No response (NR): no change in transfusion requirements and no significant change in Hb or reticulocytes (or any response that does not satisfy the conditions of either a PR or CR)
- Progression: worsening of disease as defined by the need for more frequent transfusions
|To determine the feasibility of administering the amino acid leucine and to determine the pharmacokinetics of leucine administration in patients with Diamond Blackfan anemia [ Time Frame: Leucine levels will be monitored with PK testing at baseline, week 2, 1 month, 3 months, 5 months and 9 months of administration +/- one week. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Normal reference blood levels of leucine by age as per Pass,et.al.are described as follows:
Infants 9 to 24 months: 0.59-2.03 mg/dL (45-155 micromol/L) Children 3 to 10 years: 0.73-2.33 mg/dL (56-178 micromol/L) Children 6 to 18 years: 1.03-2.28 mg/dL (79-174 micromol/L) Adults: 0.98-2.29 mg/dL (75-175 micromol/L) This study will evaluate the level of leucine which can be attributed to side effects in relation to decreased or elevated normal values of Leucine.
|Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01362595 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
|Side effects of leucine in transfusion-dependent DBA patients [ Time Frame: Total study 12-15 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Secondary outcomes include safety parameters such as type, frequency, and severity of adverse events and relationship to leucine.
|To determine the efficacy of leucine to produce a hematologic response in patients with DBA. [ Time Frame: After 9 months of drug administration will assess hemoglobin response to leucine ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
At 9 months of treatment a response will betermined by looking at the hemoglobin:
Complete response- Hgb >9 gm/dl and weaned off transfusion
Partial response- Hgb <9 gm/dl with an increase in reticulocyte count and transfusion interval is increased
No response- No change in transfusion requirement, no change in hgb or reticulocyte count
|A Pilot, Phase I/II Study of the Amino Acid Leucine in the Treatment of Patients With Transfusion-Dependent Diamond Blackfan Anemia
|The Use of Novel Therapies to Reconstitute Blood Cell Production and Promote Organ Performance Using Bone Marrow Failure as a Model: a Pilot, Phase I/II Study of the Amino Acid Leucine in the Treatment of Patients With Transfusion-dependent Diamond Blackfan Anemia
This study will determine the safety and possibility of giving the amino acid, leucine, in patients with Diamond Blackfan anemia(DBA)who are on dependent on red blood cell transfusions.
The leucine is expected to produce a response in patients with DBA to the point where red blood cell production is increased. Red cell transfusions can then be less frequent or possibly discontinued.
The investigators will study the side effects, if any, of giving leucine to DBA patients. Leucine levels of leucine will be obtained at baseline and during the study.
The drug leucine will be provided in capsule form and taken 3 times a day for a total of 9 months.
Leucine will be provided to participants in the form of a capsule and will be taken three times daily.
Blood hemoglobin levels will be monitored every 3-4 weeks for 9 months.
The entire study will last 12-15 months in length.
Subjects must be two years of age or older and on transfusion for more than six months prior to enrollment.
|Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
- Diamond Blackfan Anemia
- Blackfan Diamond Syndrome
- Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia
- Pure Red Cell Aplasia
Dosage of leucine will be dependent on body surface area (BSA):
leucine 700 mg/m2/dose by mouth three times a day
Other Name: leucine, L-leucine
No alternative treatment arm
Intervention: Drug: leucine
- Draptchinskaia N, Gustavsson P, Andersson B, Pettersson M, Willig TN, Dianzani I, Ball S, Tchernia G, Klar J, Matsson H, Tentler D, Mohandas N, Carlsson B, Dahl N. The gene encoding ribosomal protein S19 is mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anaemia. Nat Genet. 1999 Feb;21(2):169-75.
- Gazda HT, Grabowska A, Merida-Long LB, Latawiec E, Schneider HE, Lipton JM, Vlachos A, Atsidaftos E, Ball SE, Orfali KA, Niewiadomska E, Da Costa L, Tchernia G, Niemeyer C, Meerpohl JJ, Stahl J, Schratt G, Glader B, Backer K, Wong C, Nathan DG, Beggs AH, Sieff CA. Ribosomal protein S24 gene is mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Dec;79(6):1110-8. Epub 2006 Nov 2.
- Cmejla R, Cmejlova J, Handrkova H, Petrak J, Pospisilova D. Ribosomal protein S17 gene (RPS17) is mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Hum Mutat. 2007 Dec;28(12):1178-82.
- Farrar JE, Nater M, Caywood E, McDevitt MA, Kowalski J, Takemoto CM, Talbot CC Jr, Meltzer P, Esposito D, Beggs AH, Schneider HE, Grabowska A, Ball SE, Niewiadomska E, Sieff CA, Vlachos A, Atsidaftos E, Ellis SR, Lipton JM, Gazda HT, Arceci RJ. Abnormalities of the large ribosomal subunit protein, Rpl35a, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Blood. 2008 Sep 1;112(5):1582-92. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-02-140012. Epub 2008 Jun 5.
- Gazda HT, Sheen MR, Vlachos A, Choesmel V, O'Donohue MF, Schneider H, Darras N, Hasman C, Sieff CA, Newburger PE, Ball SE, Niewiadomska E, Matysiak M, Zaucha JM, Glader B, Niemeyer C, Meerpohl JJ, Atsidaftos E, Lipton JM, Gleizes PE, Beggs AH. Ribosomal protein L5 and L11 mutations are associated with cleft palate and abnormal thumbs in Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Dec;83(6):769-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.004.
- Vlachos A, Klein GW, Lipton JM. The Diamond Blackfan Anemia Registry: tool for investigating the epidemiology and biology of Diamond-Blackfan anemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001 Aug-Sep;23(6):377-82. Review.
- Vlachos A, Federman N, Reyes-Haley C, Abramson J, Lipton JM. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Diamond Blackfan anemia: a report from the Diamond Blackfan Anemia Registry. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001 Feb;27(4):381-6.
- Lipton JM, Atsidaftos E, Zyskind I, Vlachos A. Improving clinical care and elucidating the pathophysiology of Diamond Blackfan anemia: an update from the Diamond Blackfan Anemia Registry. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 May 1;46(5):558-64.
- Ozsoylu S. Oral megadose methylprednisolone for Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Blood. 1994 Nov 1;84(9):3245-7.
- Bernini JC, Carrillo JM, Buchanan GR. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy for patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia refractory to conventional doses of prednisone. J Pediatr. 1995 Oct;127(4):654-9.
- Buchanan GR; International Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Study Group. Oral megadose methylprednisolone therapy for refractory Diamond-Blackfan anemia. International Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Study Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001 Aug-Sep;23(6):353-6.
- Tötterman TH, Nisell J, Killander A, Gahrton G, Lönnqvist B. Successful treatment of pure red-cell aplasia with cyclosporin. Lancet. 1984 Sep 22;2(8404):693.
- Williams DL, Mageed AS, Findley H, Ragab AH. Cyclosporine in the treatment of red cell aplasia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1987 Winter;9(4):314-6.
- Seip M, Zanussi GF. Cyclosporine in steroid-resistant Diamond-Blackfan anaemia. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1988 May;77(3):464-6.
- Leonard EM, Raefsky E, Griffith P, Kimball J, Nienhuis AW, Young NS. Cyclosporine therapy of aplastic anaemia, congenital and acquired red cell aplasia. Br J Haematol. 1989 Jun;72(2):278-84.
- Splain J, Berman BW. Cyclosporin A treatment for Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Am J Hematol. 1992 Mar;39(3):208-11.
- Monteserin MC, Garcia Vela JA, Oña F, Lastra AM. Cyclosporin A for Diamond-Blackfan anemia: a new case. Am J Hematol. 1993 Apr;42(4):406-7.
- Alessandri AJ, Rogers PC, Wadsworth LD, Davis JH. Diamond-blackfan anemia and cyclosporine therapy revisited. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 Mar-Apr;22(2):176-9. Review.
- Bobey NA, Carcao M, Dror Y, Freedman MH, Dahl N, Woodman RC. Sustained cyclosporine-induced erythropoietic response in identical male twins with diamond-blackfan anemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003 Nov;25(11):914-8.
- Harris SI, Weinberg JB. Treatment of red cell aplasia with antithymocyte globulin: repeated inductions of complete remissions in two patients. Am J Hematol. 1985 Oct;20(2):183-6.
- Roychowdhury DF, Linker CA. Pure red cell aplasia complicating an ABO-compatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, treated successfully with antithymocyte globulin. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995 Sep;16(3):471-2.
- Abkowitz JL, Powell JS, Nakamura JM, Kadin ME, Adamson JW. Pure red cell aplasia: response to therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin. Am J Hematol. 1986 Dec;23(4):363-71.
- McGuire WA, Yang HH, Bruno E, Brandt J, Briddell R, Coates TD, Hoffman R. Treatment of antibody-mediated pure red-cell aplasia with high-dose intravenous gamma globulin. N Engl J Med. 1987 Oct 15;317(16):1004-8.
- Bejaoui M, Fitouri Z, Sfar MT, Lakhoua R. Failure of immunosuppressive therapy and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in four transfusion-dependent, steroid-unresponsive Blackfan-Diamond anemia patients. Haematologica. 1993 Jan-Feb;78(1):38-9.
- Sumimoto S, Kawai M, Kasajima Y, Hamamoto T. Intravenous gamma-globulin therapy in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1992 Apr;34(2):179-80.
- Miceli Sopo S, Pesaresi MA, Pastore M, Stabile A. Intravenous immunoglobulin in Diamond-Blackfan anaemia. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Aug;149(11):779-80.
- Halperin DS, Estrov Z, Freedman MH. Diamond-Blackfan anemia: promotion of marrow erythropoiesis in vitro by recombinant interleukin-3. Blood. 1989 Apr;73(5):1168-74.
- Dunbar CE, Smith DA, Kimball J, Garrison L, Nienhuis AW, Young NS. Treatment of Diamond-Blackfan anaemia with haematopoietic growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 3: sustained remissions following IL-3. Br J Haematol. 1991 Oct;79(2):316-21.
- Gillio AP, Faulkner LB, Alter BP, Reilly L, Klafter R, Heller G, Young DC, Lipton JM, Moore MA, O'Reilly RJ. Treatment of Diamond-Blackfan anemia with recombinant human interleukin-3. Blood. 1993 Aug 1;82(3):744-51.
- Gillio AP, Faulkner LB, Alter BP, Reilly L, Klafter R, Heller G, Young DC, Lipton JM, Moore MA, O'Reilly RJ. Successful treatment of Diamond-Blackfan anemia with interleukin 3. Stem Cells. 1993 Jul;11 Suppl 2:123-30.
- Bastion Y, Bordigoni P, Debré M, Girault D, Leblanc T, Tchernia G, Ball S, McGuckin C, Gordon-Smith EC, Békassy A, et al. Sustained response after recombinant interleukin-3 in diamond blackfan anemia. Blood. 1994 Jan 15;83(2):617-8.
- Olivieri NF, Feig SA, Valentino L, Berriman AM, Shore R, Freedman MH. Failure of recombinant human interleukin-3 therapy to induce erythropoiesis in patients with refractory Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Blood. 1994 May 1;83(9):2444-50.
- Ball SE, Tchernia G, Wranne L, Bastion Y, Bekassy NA, Bordigoni P, Debré M, Elinder G, Kamps WA, Lanning M, et al. Is there a role for interleukin-3 in Diamond-Blackfan anaemia? Results of a European multicentre study. Br J Haematol. 1995 Oct;91(2):313-8.
- Abkowitz JL, Schaison G, Boulad F, Brown DL, Buchanan GR, Johnson CA, Murray JC, Sabo KM. Response of Diamond-Blackfan anemia to metoclopramide: evidence for a role for prolactin in erythropoiesis. Blood. 2002 Oct 15;100(8):2687-91.
- Akiyama M, Yanagisawa T, Yuza Y, Yokoi K, Ariga M, Fujisawa K, Hoshi Y, Eto Y. Successful treatment of Diamond-Blackfan anemia with metoclopramide. Am J Hematol. 2005 Apr;78(4):295-8.
- Leblanc TM, Da Costa L, Marie I, Demolis P, Tchernia G. Metoclopramide treatment in DBA patients: no complete response in a French prospective study. Blood. 2007 Mar 1;109(5):2266-7.
- Cynober L, Harris RA. Symposium on branched-chain amino acids: conference summary. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):333S-6S.
- Choudry HA, Pan M, Karinch AM, Souba WW. Branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutritional support in surgical and cancer patients. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):314S-8S. Review.
- Pospisilova D, Cmejlova J, Hak J, Adam T, Cmejla R. Successful treatment of a Diamond-Blackfan anemia patient with amino acid leucine. Haematologica. 2007 May;92(5):e66-7.
- Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms through which branched-chain amino acids mediate translational control of protein synthesis. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):227S-31S. Review.
- Pencharz PB, Ball RO. Amino acid needs for early growth and development. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6 Suppl):1566S-1568S. Review.
- Bernardini P, Fischer JE. Amino acid imbalance and hepatic encephalopathy. Annu Rev Nutr. 1982;2:419-54. Review.
- Poon RT, Yu WC, Fan ST, Wong J. Long-term oral branched chain amino acids in patients undergoing chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr 1;19(7):779-88.
- Plaitakis A, Smith J, Mandeli J, Yahr MD. Pilot trial of branched-chain aminoacids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet. 1988 May 7;1(8593):1015-8.
- Pass KA, Lane PA, Fernhoff PM, Hinton CF, Panny SR, Parks JS, Pelias MZ, Rhead WJ, Ross SI, Wethers DL, Elsas LJ 2nd. US newborn screening system guidelines II: follow-up of children, diagnosis, management, and evaluation. Statement of the Council of Regional Networks for Genetic Services (CORN). J Pediatr. 2000 Oct;137(4 Suppl):S1-46.
- Vlachos A, Ball S, Dahl N, Alter BP, Sheth S, Ramenghi U, Meerpohl J, Karlsson S, Liu JM, Leblanc T, Paley C, Kang EM, Leder EJ, Atsidaftos E, Shimamura A, Bessler M, Glader B, Lipton JM; Participants of Sixth Annual Daniella Maria Arturi International Consensus Conference. Diagnosing and treating Diamond Blackfan anaemia: results of an international clinical consensus conference. Br J Haematol. 2008 Sep;142(6):859-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07269.x. Epub 2008 Jul 30.
- Cmejlova J, Dolezalova L, Pospisilova D, Petrtylova K, Petrak J, Cmejla R. Translational efficiency in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Haematologica. 2006 Nov;91(11):1456-64.
- Hutson SM, Sweatt AJ, Lanoue KF. Branched-chain [corrected] amino acid metabolism: implications for establishing safe intakes. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6 Suppl):1557S-64S. Review. Erratum in: J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):2009.
- Lab Advisor(TM); Leucine Measurements in Micromedex (R) Healthcare Series. 2010Thomson Reuters
- Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F. Pharmacist's letter/ Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd ed, Therapeutic Research Faculty, Stockton, CA, 2000.
- Braverman ER. The Healing Nutrients Within. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc. 1997; 339
- Gilman AG, Rall JW, Nies AD et al (eds): Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed. Pergamon Press, New York, NY, 1990.
- AMA Department of Drugs; AMA Drug Evaluations, 6th ed. American Medical Association, Chicago, IL,1986.
- Tietz NE (Ed); Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd ed W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1995.
- Henry JB: Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 20th ed. Saunders 2001.
- Sax HC, Talamini MA, Fischer JE. Clinical use of branched-chain amino acids in liver disease, sepsis, trauma, and burns. Arch Surg. 1986 Mar;121(3):358-66. Review.
|September 2016 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
- diagnosed with Diamond Blackfan anemia as published in British Journal of Hematology
- transfusion dependent
- age 2 years and older
- adequate renal function
- adequate liver function
- negative B-HCG if patient is a menstruating female and documentation of adequate contraception
- signed informed consent
- Known hypersensitivity to branched chain amino acids
- Diagnosis of an inborn error of amino acid metabolism disorder
- Prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Pregnancy, or plans to become pregnant during duration of trial
|2 Years and older
|Adrianna Vlachos, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System
|North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System
||Adrianna Vlachos, MD
||North Shore- Long Island Jewish Medical Center; Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY
|North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System