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Metabolic Phenotyping in Humans (MetPhe)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01298375
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : February 17, 2011
Last Update Posted : September 19, 2022
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Maastricht University Medical Center

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date February 16, 2011
First Posted Date February 17, 2011
Last Update Posted Date September 19, 2022
Study Start Date March 2011
Estimated Primary Completion Date March 2024   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: February 16, 2011)
Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for measurement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility [ Time Frame: 10 hours ]
After taking fasting blood samples, a primed constant infusion of glucose is initiated. Plasma glucose levels are clamped at ~5 mmol/L by variable co-infusion of 20% glucose. Every 5 minutes, blood is sampled for immediate determination of plasma glucose concentration. Glucose infusion rate is adjusted to obtain plasma glucose levels of ~5 mmol/L (euglycemia). A bolus of insulin is then infused. Before and during steady state, substrate oxidation is measured using an indirect calorimeter, which determines metabolic flexibility.
Original Primary Outcome Measures Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: February 16, 2011)
Evaluating mitochondrial function through measurement of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) within the skeletal muscle [ Time Frame: 1.5 hours ]
The quantification of energy metabolites (Pi, PCr and ATP) in skeletal muscle will be performed in the v. lateralis at rest, during submaximal knee-extension exercise and during recovery. The rate at which PCr concentration is restored after exercise is an excellent in vivo measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title Metabolic Phenotyping in Humans
Official Title Metabolic Characterization of Type 2 Diabetic, Obese, Lean Sedentary and Endurance Trained Individuals in Vivo, ex Vivo and in Vitro
Brief Summary Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global burden disease affecting almost 200 million people and is expected to nearly double by 2030 (1). It is imperative that this disease is kept under control, and that we begin to reverse the direction of its incidence. We propose to start by identifying the physiological and molecular aspects of the problem in all spectrums of the disease (ie from insulin sensitive athletes to sedentary lean and obese individuals and further to overt type 2 diabetics), and focus our efforts on examining the differences and identifying the stages of progression for possible targets of future intervention. The proposed study "Metabolic Phenotyping" is novel in its target populations and innovative in its use of state-of-the-art techniques. We hypothesize that the in vivo differences in metabolic flexibility and mitochondrial function between endurance athletes and type 2 diabetics and their lean and obese controls are retained in vitro and will offer a new model in which to study the underlying mechanisms of the progression of T2D.
Detailed Description

The aim of the present research proposal is to metabolically phenotype endurance trained athletes, lean and obese sedentary and type 2 diabetic individuals with the following objectives:

  1. assess metabolic flexibility as measured by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp
  2. measure in vivo mitochondrial function by MRS of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery
  3. establish primary myoblast cell lines to correlate with the above in vivo measurements, as well as further explore dietary, pharmacological and genetic manipulations in vitro
  4. quantify intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and acetylcarnitine in vivo by MRS

Study population:

A total of 132 male participants (18-70 years) will participate in this study. The first group of 33 participants will be lean endurance-trained athletes, the second group will be lean sedentary control participants, the third group will be sedentary type 2 diabetic participants, and the last group of 33 participants will be obese, non-diabetic sedentary control participants. It is preferred to use male participants in order to minimize variation in the measurements by avoiding confounding factors such as hormones.

Main study parameters/endpoints: The main study parameters are differences in metabolic flexibility as measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, PCr recovery, IMCL and acetylcarnitines as measured by MRS and establishment of primary myoblast cell lines for future use.

Study Type Observational
Study Design Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Target Follow-Up Duration Not Provided
Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA
DNA, RNA, tissue, primary myoblasts, mitochondria
Sampling Method Non-Probability Sample
Study Population Human volunteers from the surrounding area
  • Healthy
  • Obesity
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Intervention Not Provided
Study Groups/Cohorts Not Provided
Publications * Houzelle A, Jorgensen JA, Schaart G, Daemen S, van Polanen N, Fealy CE, Hesselink MKC, Schrauwen P, Hoeks J. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics in relation to oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2021 Feb;64(2):424-436. doi: 10.1007/s00125-020-05335-w. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment
 (submitted: February 16, 2011)
Original Estimated Enrollment Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date March 2024
Estimated Primary Completion Date March 2024   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria

General Inclusion criteria:

  • Male sex
  • Generally healthy with specifically no known cardiovascular disease or gastric ulcers, which can affect the study parameters
  • Stable dietary habits (no weight loss/gain > 3 kg in the last 6 months)

Group 1, type 2 diabetes participants:

  • Ages 40-70 years
  • BMI > 30 kg/m2
  • Non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes
  • Must be on sulphonylurea (SU)-derivate or metformin therapy for at least six months with a constant dose for at least two months, or on dietary treatment for at least six months
  • Well-controlled diabetes: HbA1c < 8%
  • No diabetes related co-morbidities like cardiovascular diseases, diabetic foot, polyneuropathy, retinopathy

Group 2, obese healthy control participants:

  • Ages 40-70 years
  • BMI > 30 kg/m2
  • A plasma glucose level lower than 6.1 mmol/L
  • No family history of diabetes
  • No medication use
  • Sedentary lifestyle; No participation in any physical activity for at least 2 years

Group 3, endurance trained athletes:

  • Ages 18-35 years
  • BMI < 25 kg/m2
  • No family history of diabetes
  • No medication use
  • VO2max > 55ml/kg/min
  • Active in competitive endurance-exercise activities, 3 times a week for at least 2 years
  • Stable level of training for at least 6 months

Group 4, lean healthy sedentary control participants:

  • Ages 18-35 years
  • BMI < 25 kg/m2
  • No family history of diabetes
  • No medication use
  • VO2max < 55ml/kg/min
  • Plasma glucose < 6.1 mmol/L
  • Sedentary lifestyle; No participation in physical activity for more than 1 hour per week for at least 2 years

General Exclusion criteria:

  • Regular smokers
  • Participation in other studies
  • Female sex
  • Insulin dependent diabetic individuals
  • Participants with diabetes related diseases (diabetic foot, diabetic polyneuropathy, diabetic retinopathy etc.)
  • Use of Thiazolidines (glitazone/rosiglitazone/pioglitazone/troglitazone)
  • Use of anti-coagulants (not thrombocyte-aggregation inhibitors)
  • Aberrant ECG (with signs of ischemia or cardiac failure or arrythmias)
  • Weight gain/loss > 3 kg in the last 6 months
  • HbA1c < 7.8 in type 2 diabetic individuals
  • Contraindications for MRS scans:

    • Electronic implants such as pacemakers or neurostimulator
    • Iron-containing foreign bodies in eyes or brain
    • Some hearing aids and artificial (heart) valves which are contraindicated for MRS
    • Claustrophobia
  • Participants, who do not want to be informed about unexpected medical findings, or do not wish that their physician be informed, cannot participate in the study.
Sexes Eligible for Study: Male
Ages 18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers Yes
Contact: Madeleen Bosma, M.S. 31433884254 m.bosma@maastrichtuniversity.nl
Contact: Bram Brouwers, B.S. 31433884258 b.brouwers@maastrichtuniversity.nl
Listed Location Countries Netherlands
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number NCT01298375
Other Study ID Numbers NL35178.068.11
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement Not Provided
Current Responsible Party Maastricht University Medical Center
Original Responsible Party Dr. Professor Patrick Schrauwen, Maastricht University
Current Study Sponsor Maastricht University Medical Center
Original Study Sponsor Same as current
Collaborators Not Provided
Study Director: Patrick Schrauwen, PhD Maastricht University
Principal Investigator: Lauren M Sparks, PhD Maastricht University
Principal Investigator: Madeleen Bosma, M.S. Maastricht University
PRS Account Maastricht University Medical Center
Verification Date September 2022