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Combined Ketamine/Propofol for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01126957
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Investigator left institution.)
First Posted : May 20, 2010
Results First Posted : May 30, 2017
Last Update Posted : May 30, 2017
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Missouri-Columbia

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE May 11, 2010
First Posted Date  ICMJE May 20, 2010
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE September 23, 2016
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE May 30, 2017
Last Update Posted Date May 30, 2017
Study Start Date  ICMJE May 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date March 2010   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: April 19, 2017)
Respiratory Depression [ Time Frame: Baseline and throughout procedure ]
  1. Endotracheal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) rise > 5mm/hg
  2. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) <90%
  3. Respiratory rate (RR) < 8 br/min
  4. Apnea > 15 sec
  5. airway manipulation
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 19, 2010)
Respiratory Depression [ Time Frame: Data was analyzed and markers of respiratory depression were assesed based on intial patient vital signs and recorded patient vital signs. Data analysis took place within 1 day to 1 month after each procedural sedation for the entirety of the study. ]
  1. ETCO2 rise > 5mm/hg
  2. SaO2 <90%
  3. RR < 8 br/min
  4. Apnea > 15 sec
  5. airway manipulation
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: April 19, 2017)
Satisfaction With Procedural Sedation [ Time Frame: 20 minutes ]
Score of 1 to 5 with 5 being completely satisfied and 1 being not satisfied at all was recorded by both the monitoring nurse and the physician performing the procedural sedation
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 19, 2010)
Satisfaction With Procedural Sedation [ Time Frame: A score was recorded immediately after completion of individual patient procedural sedation study periods, being within 1 to 20 minutes following completion. ]
Score of 1 to 5 with 5 being completely satisfied and 1 being not satisfied at all was recorded by both the monitoring nurse and the physician performing the procedural sedation
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Combined Ketamine/Propofol for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation
Official Title  ICMJE Combined Ketamine/Propofol for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation
Brief Summary

Introduction

Numerous drugs and combinations of drugs are used for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in Emergency Departments, including propofol, ketamine, benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, and others, but propofol has gained popularity despite its potential to cause cardiac and respiratory depression. Obviously the optimal agent or combination of agents has not been identified. There are reasons to believe that a combination of ketamine and propofol may have advantages over other agents/combinations. These include better hemodynamic stability at equal depth of anesthesia with a combination of ketamine/propofol than with propofol alone, less respiratory depression with the combination in comparison to propofol alone, and preservation of respiratory drive with the combination. There is one study of ketamine/propofol in Emergency Department (ED) procedural sedation which demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of the combination, but did not compare it to any other agents or combinations. The investigators designed a randomized, placebo controlled study to compare propofol to propofol and ketamine for adequacy of sedation and respiratory depression in Emergency Department procedural sedation and analgesia. The investigators hypothesis was that the combination of propofol/ketamine would produce better sedation and/or less respiratory depression than propofol alone.

Methods

Study design

The investigators conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blinded study of all patients receiving procedural sedation. From April 2007 until July 2009 in the ED of a 274 bed university teaching hospital. The study was approved by the University of Missouri's Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Detailed Description

Introduction

Numerous drugs and combinations of drugs are used for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in Emergency Departments, including propofol, ketamine, benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, and others, but propofol has gained popularity despite its potential to cause cardiac and respiratory depression. Obviously the optimal agent or combination of agents has not been identified. There are reasons to believe that a combination of ketamine and propofol may have advantages over other agents/combinations. These include better hemodynamic stability at equal depth of anesthesia with a combination of ketamine/propofol than with propofol alone, less respiratory depression with the combination in comparison to propofol alone, and preservation of respiratory drive with the combination. There is one study of ketamine/propofol in Emergency Department (ED) procedural sedation which demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of the combination, but did not compare it to any other agents or combinations. We designed a randomized, placebo controlled study to compare propofol to propofol and ketamine for adequacy of sedation and respiratory depression in Emergency Department procedural sedation and analgesia. Our hypothesis was that the combination of propofol/ketamine would produce better sedation and/or less respiratory depression than propofol alone.

Methods

Study design

We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blinded study of all patients receiving procedural sedation. From May 2007 until March 2009 in the ED of a 274 bed university teaching hospital. The study was approved by the University of Missouri's Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Study setting and population

All patients requiring PSA in the ED were viewed as potential subjects unless they were pregnant, less than 1 year of age, history of prior adverse reaction to anesthesia, underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease, hepatic dysfunction, porphyria, psychiatric illness, allergy to eggs/soybeans, increased intracranial or intraocular pressure, abnormal airway pathology or an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of 3 or greater. The attending ED physician would then approach the patient to enroll them in the study. If the patient accepted they were randomized by the hospital pharmacy.

Study protocol

An ED attending physician was dedicated to PSA throughout the procedure. Patients had EKG, blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) monitored, had IV access obtained and were placed on nasal cannula oxygen supplementation. All patients received pre-procedure analgesia with 0.5 to 1.5 mcg/Kg of fentanyl and all patients had reflective sunglasses placed so as to obscure eye movements from the staff.

Subjects were randomized by the pharmacy in blocks of ten. Consecutively numbered pre-filled 3cc syringes were prepared by the pharmacy staff once they received a signed and dated study enrollment sheet from the ER staff with the patients weight in kilograms provided. All physicians, nurses, patients and study personnel were blinded to the contents of the syringes which were hand delivered by pharmacy personnel.

Patients were randomized to receive either 0.5 mg/Kg of ketamine or placebo (normal saline) delivered to the emergency room sedating physician in a 3 cc syringe containing a clear/colorless solution. This solution was delivered intravenously over a one minute infusion. On completion of this infusion all patients received propofol starting at 1 mg/Kg over 2 minutes and supplemented with repeated boluses of 0.5 mg/Kg to maintain adequate sedation. Patients were felt to be adequately sedated once they received a Colorado Behavioral Numerical Pain Scale (CBNPS) score of 0 to 113(table 1.) Patients were monitored after the procedure until a normal level of consciousness was observed.

The quantity of all drugs delivered were recorded. During the procedure all patients were monitored for 5 respiratory depression markers:

  • PetCO2 rise of ³ 5 mm/Hg
  • Respiratory rate < 8 br/min
  • arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) < 90%
  • Apnea ³ 15 seconds
  • Airway manipulation

Physicians were permitted to intervene and provide any supportive/resuscitative measures at there discretion despite the pre-specified respiratory depression markers.

All data were collected and recorded on standardized Hospital PSA forms. Data was collected for the entire time frame of the individual procedural sedations. Following the completion of the procedural sedation a second form was filled out by both the sedating physician and monitoring nurse recording specifically any respiratory events/rescue interventions and overall satisfaction with the procedural sedation. The overall quality of the PSA was evaluated by the physician/nurse performing the sedation as one of the following:

  1. Not satisfied
  2. Somewhat satisfied
  3. Satisfied
  4. Very satisfied
  5. Excellent

All data was recorded on a secure computer in spreadsheet form (Microsoft Excel 2003, Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) for later analysis.

Outcome Measures

Four endpoints were defined prior to study initiation:

Respiratory Depression. A difference in evidence of respiratory depression between the groups. Respiratory depression was defined as the occurrence of any of the 5 markers.

Satisfaction with PSA. A difference in the evaluation of the quality of the sedation by the providers.

Quality of PSA. Number of patients with a CBNPS of 0.

Propofol usage. Did the addition of ketamine significantly reduce the amount of propofol needed to produce adequate PSA.

Data analysis We plan to enroll 100 patients in each group. This is based on an estimate of a 40% incidence of respiratory depression with propofol alone, a reduction to 20% with the combination of ketamine/propofol, an a of 0.05 and a power of 0.8.14-16. An interim analysis was conducted at enrollment of 100 patients using a significance of 0.025 for difference in respiratory depression.

Respiratory depression and CBNPS were compared using a chi-squared test and Satisfaction with PSA and Quality of PSA were compared using a t-test. Tests were done with Primer of Biostatistics (Version 6.0, Stanton A. Glantz, 2005).

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Procedural Sedation and Analgesia
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Ketamine
    Ketamine was given as a 0.5mg / Kg bolus.
    Other Name: Ketalar
  • Drug: Placebo
    Placebo given as an bolus to control group.
  • Drug: Fentanyl
    Fentanyl 0.5 - 1.5 micrograms given to both arms prior to Ketamine or placebo
    Other Name: Sublimaze
  • Drug: Propofol
    Propofol given to both arms to maintain sedation throughout procedure.
    Other Name: Diprivan
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Ketamine
    Participants received 0.5-1.5 micrograms/kg Fentanyl, followed 0.5 mg/kg Ketamine infusion, followed by propofol to maintain sedation.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Ketamine
    • Drug: Fentanyl
    • Drug: Propofol
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo
    Participants received 0.5-1.5 micrograms/kg Fentanyl, followed by placebo infusion, followed by propofol to maintain sedation.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Placebo
    • Drug: Fentanyl
    • Drug: Propofol
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Terminated
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: April 19, 2017)
107
Original Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 19, 2010)
220
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE March 2010
Actual Primary Completion Date March 2010   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Healthy individuals from 1 year of age and up without the below exclusion criteria

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects: All patients who require ED conscious sedation and do not meet any of the following exclusion criteria are eligible for study participation:

    • Age < 1yr
    • History of prior adverse reaction to anesthesia
    • History of cardiac disease
    • History of pulmonary disease
    • Hepatic dysfunction
    • Thyroid disease
    • Pregnancy
    • Porphyria
    • Psychiatric Illness
    • Allergy to eggs, soybeans, or sulfites
    • Increased intracranial or intraocular pressure
    • Active upper respiratory infection in children
    • Abnormal airway
    • ASA score of III or greater
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 1 Year and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01126957
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE Project Number: 1084480
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Responsible Party University of Missouri-Columbia
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Missouri-Columbia
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Henry David, MD University of Missouri-Columbia
PRS Account University of Missouri-Columbia
Verification Date March 2017

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP