Anal HPV Infection and Abnormal Cytology in HIV-infected Women

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00933140
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 7, 2009
Last Update Posted : November 17, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Elizabeth Stier, Boston Medical Center

July 2, 2009
July 7, 2009
November 17, 2015
October 2006
September 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Primary objective is to determine the rate of anal cytologic and histologic abnormalities in HIV infected women at Boston Medical Center. [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00933140 on Archive Site
Identify risk factors for anal cytologic and histologic abnormalities in HIV infected women at BMC [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
Same as current
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Anal HPV Infection and Abnormal Cytology in HIV-infected Women
Anal HPV Infection and Abnormal Cytology in HIV-infected Women
The population of HIV infected women seen at Boston Medical Center may have a higher frequency of anal cytologic and histologic abnormalities than what is reported for the non-HIV infected population.

BACKROUND FOR THIS STUDY Anal cancer is a growing problem in the US. The incidence of anal cancer has increased among both men (160%) and women (78%) from 1973 to 2000 in the US [1]. In HIV-infected men the incidence of SCCA (squamous cell cancer of the anus) was found to range from 49-92 per 100,000 patient years [2]. This prompted recommendations on screening for anal cancer in this population. HIV-infected women are also at increased risk for developing anal cancer. A study based on data from AIDS and cancer registries found that the risk of anal cancer among women in the general population is about 1.2% and it increases up to 3.9% in the HIV-infected women. In addition, HIV-infected women had eight times the risk of in situ anal cancer compared with the number of expected cases [3].

SCCA appears to have many similarities to cervical cancers. HPV has been detected in 88% of anal cancer specimens with HPV-16 found in 73% of SCCA and HPV-18 in 7% [1]. In addition, SCCA develops in the transformation zone between the squamous epithelium of the anus and the columnar epithelium of the rectum, is frequently associated with dysplasia of the anus and may be preceded by squamous intraepithelial changes which are also associated with HPV.

Cervical cytology, also known as pap smear, can detect cervical cancer and its precursors. Countries who have adopted cervical cancer screening programs have had dramatic decreases in both the morbidity and mortality rates of cervical cancer.

Anal cytology may also be used to screen for HPV associated anal lesions, and among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, an abnormal cytology is frequently associated with a dysplastic squamous cell lesion of the anus. Anal HPV infections (high risk types) have been found in 53 ¿ 95% of HIV-infected men. Abnormal anal cytology has been found in 41-81% of HIV-infected men screened with high-grade cytologic findings in 2-25% of these patients [2].

There have been only a few studies looking at anal cytology in HIV-infected women. The largest study (n=235), by Holly and Palefsky [4], found that HIV positive women had a 26% prevalence of anal cytologic abnormalities (mostly atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS] and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL]). Forty-six of these women with abnormal cytology (60) underwent high resolution anoscopy (HRA) and 14 were found to have biopsy proven HSIL.

Several risk factors for anal cytologic abnormalities in women have been suggested, such as positive anal HPV test, history of anal intercourse, history of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), history of vulvar warts, multifocal cervical SIL, history of sexually transmitted infections, more than 10 sexual partners, history of cervical, vulvar or vaginal cancer, immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation, HIV infection, long-term corticosteroids use and cigarette smoking.

It has been suggested that all HIV-infected women, women with cervical cancer and women with high-grade vulvar disease or cancer should be screened for anal cytologic abnormalities. However, as described above there is very scanty literature describing the prevalence and incidence in this patient population and the largest study was conducted prior to the HAART era.

We plan to estimate the prevalence and 6-12 month incidence of abnormal anal cytology with histologic correlates in the HIV-infected women seen at BMC. We hope that the information will allow us to make screening recommendations for this patient population.

Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
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Non-Probability Sample
HIV infected women aged between 18-64 years presenting for cervical cytologic screening.
  • Cervical Cancer Screening
  • HIV Infections
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HIV infected women
HIV infected women between ages 18 - 64 years of age due for cervical cancer screening were enrolled.
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*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Same as current
September 2009
September 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18-64 years
  • HIV infected women
  • due for cervical cytologic screening

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy
  • On chronic anticoagulation medication
  • Life expectancy of the woman is less than 1 year
  • If the woman has had a cervical or anal pap test in the last 6 months
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
18 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
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Elizabeth Stier, Boston Medical Center
Boston Medical Center
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Principal Investigator: Elizabeth A Stier, MD Boston Medical Center
Boston Medical Center
November 2015