Intra-operative Ketamine Infusions in Opioid-dependent Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00899600|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 12, 2009
Results First Posted : April 11, 2013
Last Update Posted : October 18, 2018
|First Submitted Date ICMJE||May 8, 2009|
|First Posted Date ICMJE||May 12, 2009|
|Results First Submitted Date ICMJE||November 27, 2012|
|Results First Posted Date ICMJE||April 11, 2013|
|Last Update Posted Date||October 18, 2018|
|Study Start Date ICMJE||February 2007|
|Actual Primary Completion Date||April 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||Morphine Consumption in the First 48 Hours After Surgery [ Time Frame: 48 hours ]
Total morphine(mg)consumed at 48 hours.
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||Morphine consumption and pain scores in the first 24 and 48 hours and at 6 weeks [ Time Frame: 24 and 48 hours, 6 weeks postoperatively ]|
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Intra-operative Ketamine Infusions in Opioid-dependent Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain|
|Official Title ICMJE||Intra-operative Ketamine Infusions in Patients With Chronic Lower Back Discomfort Undergoing Laminectomies.|
Noxious stimuli occurring intraoperatively and postoperatively generate central sensitization, decreasing pain thresholds and ultimately increasing analgesic requirements. The pathophysiology of central sensitization is thought to involve excitatory amino acid receptors such as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (1, 2). Ketamine is a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been shown to be useful in the reduction of acute postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in a variety of surgical interventions (3).
Spine surgery provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the preemptive and preventative impact of ketamine on the primary end points of postoperative 24 and 48 hour opioid consumption in patients with chronic pain. The goal of this double blinded, prospective, randomized placebo controlled trial is to quantify the preemptive and preventative analgesic effects of ketamine infusions in this patient population. Such insight may lead to better pain control, improved satisfaction, and ultimately a reduction in side-effects related to postoperative opioid use.
Noxious stimuli occurring intra-operatively and post-operatively generate central sensitization, decreasing pain thresholds and ultimately increasing analgesic requirements. The pathophysiology of central sensitization is thought to involve excitatory amino acid receptors that have been implicated in the prolongation of painful states in animal models. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is one such excitatory amino acid receptor (1, 2).
The underlying mechanism of central sensitization is thought to involve c-fiber associated injury occurring with incision. Crile and Wall brought about the concept that attenuation of central sensitization could be accomplished via the provision of analgesic interventions (opioids, local anesthesia) prior to the noxious insult. They termed the central sensitization attenuation preemptive analgesia. The concept of preemptive analgesia was later expanded to implicate both pre and post-incisional noxious stimuli as part of this process, resulting in studies designed to provide interventions throughout the surgical intervention (peri-procedural) (3). Reduction in analgesic requirements or pain scores for more than five half-lives (1st order kinetics) following the provision of the intervening analgesic agent peri-procedurally is now known as preventative analgesia. The term preemptive analgesia is now reserved for interventions that occur only before the noxious stimuli.
Multiple studies have investigated the concepts of preemptive analgesia and preventative analgesia by providing a variety of analgesic interventions at various times throughout the surgical insult in addition to more conventional means of anesthesia provision, including opioids, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID)s, Cyclooxygenase-II (COX-2) inhibitors, alpha-2 agonists, and ketamine (4, 5, 6). Preemptive and preventative analgesia using a variety of pharmacological agents with at least partially known mechanisms of actions has provided some insight into potential mechanisms of central sensitization.
Ketamine is a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been shown to be useful in the reduction of acute postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in a variety of surgical interventions with variable routes of administration. It has also been shown to be effective in the presence and absence of opioids, suggesting that it has more than one mechanism of action in preemptive and preventative analgesia, including but not limited to decreasing central excitability, decreasing acute post-operative opioid tolerance, and a possible modulation of opioid receptors (7). Ketamine is a common anesthetic agent and has been in use since the Vietnam War. Clinically, ketamine provides pain relief with minimal respiratory depression, and at higher doses (1-2mg/kg) can induce general anesthesia while maintaining blood pressure and cardiac output.
Recently, a qualitative systematic review of the role of NMDA receptor antagonists was completed. Twenty-four studies investigating the role of ketamine met the inclusion criteria of the study, 58% of which demonstrated a preemptive or preventative analgesic effect. Patients underwent a variety of surgical procedures, both ambulatory and inpatient, and there was no obvious effect of either surgical type or dose of ketamine (range 0.15 to 1mg/kg) on the success of preventative intervention. However, the authors were unable to quantify the degree of reduction in primary end-points (opioid consumption, pain scores, both) due to variability in recording of such data. In addition, most inpatient studies were limited to abdominal procedures while the outpatient studies investigated mainly knee arthroscopies, providing no insight into the degree of impact of NMDA receptor antagonism in the setting of high pre-operative opioid tolerance combined with surgical procedures known to be associated with an invariably high degree of post-operative pain. Of note, only 1/24 studies documented a significant difference in side effects related to ketamine provision in patients who had received 20mg of epidural ketamine (7).
Laminectomy procedures provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the preemptive and preventative impact of ketamine on the primary end points of acute post-operative pain scores and opioid consumption in a patient population with opioid dependence and a high degree of post-operative and intra-operative noxious stimuli. The goal of this double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial will be to test for the presence of, and quantify, the preemptive and preventative analgesic effects of ketamine infusions in this patient population. Such insight may lead to better pain control, improved satisfaction, and ultimately a reduction in side-effects related to post-operative opioid use including but not limited to respiratory depression, constipation, and delirium.
|Study Type ICMJE||Interventional|
|Study Phase ICMJE||Not Applicable|
|Study Design ICMJE||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Condition ICMJE||Chronic Low Back Pain|
|Study Arms ICMJE||
|Publications *||1. Wall PD. The prevention of postoperative pain. Pain 1988; 33: 289-90. 2. Katz J. George Washington Crile, anoci-association, and preemptive analgesia. Pain 1993;53: 243-5. 3. McQual HJ. Pre-emptive analgesia. Br J Anaesth 1992;69: 1-3. 4. Moiniche S, Kehlet H, Dahl JB. A qualitative and quantitative systematic review of preemptive analgesia for postoperative pain relief: the role of timing of analgesia. Anesthesiology 2002;96: 725-41. 5. Katz J. Pre-emptive analgesia: evidence, current status and future directions. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl 995;10:8-13. 6. Katz J, McCartney CJ. Update on pre-emptive analgesia. Curr Opin Anesthesiol 2002; 15: 435-41. 7. McCartney et al. A qualitative systematic review of the role of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonists in preventative analgesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1385-1400. 8. Wu CT, Yeh CC, Yu JC, et al. Pre-incisional epidural ketamine, morphine and bupivacaine combined with epidural and general anesthesia provides pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000;44: 63-8.|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Completed|
|Actual Enrollment ICMJE
|Original Actual Enrollment ICMJE
|Actual Study Completion Date ICMJE||April 2009|
|Actual Primary Completion Date||April 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
|Ages ICMJE||18 Years to 90 Years (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers ICMJE||Yes|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Listed Location Countries ICMJE||United States|
|Removed Location Countries|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT00899600|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||100674|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||Yes|
|U.S. FDA-regulated Product||Not Provided|
|IPD Sharing Statement ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Responsible Party||Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center|
|Collaborators ICMJE||Not Provided|
|PRS Account||Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center|
|Verification Date||September 2018|
ICMJE Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP