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Snack Food Reinforcement in Obese and Non-Obese Women

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
State University of New York at Buffalo Identifier:
First received: February 3, 2009
Last updated: February 4, 2009
Last verified: February 2009

February 3, 2009
February 4, 2009
May 2007
June 2008   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • number of responses made for food
  • Energy intake
Same as current
No Changes Posted
  • body weight
  • height
Same as current
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Snack Food Reinforcement in Obese and Non-Obese Women
Differential Effects of Daily Snack Food Intake on Reinforcing Value of Food in Obese and Non-Obese Women.
Food reinforcement, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and weight loss. Our previous study in non-obese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food typically consumed outside of meals) for 14 days significantly decreased its reinforcing value. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend these findings to obese individuals as well as to examine effects of different portion sizes of snack foods on food reinforcement. Thirty-one obese (body mass index > 30 kg/m2) and 27 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) women had food reinforcement and liking tested at baseline and after two weeks of daily consumption of either 0 kcal, 100 kcals, or 300 kcals daily of the same snack food.
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Time Perspective: Prospective
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Non-Probability Sample
Women ages 18 - 50 years who were obese (body mass index >/= 30) or non-obese (BMI < 30)
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  • 1
    Non-obese/0 kcal
  • 2
    Non-obese/100 kcal
  • 3
    Non-obese/300 kcal
  • 4
    Obese/0 kcal
  • 5
    Obese/100 kcal
  • 6
    Obese/300 kcal
Temple JL, Bulkley AM, Badawy RL, Krause N, McCann S, Epstein LH. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;90(2):304-13. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27283. Epub 2009 May 20.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Not Provided
June 2008
June 2008   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • women
  • non-smoker
  • not on a diet
  • no restrained eating
  • had to like potential snack foods
  • willing to visit the laboratory 3 times
  • willing to eat snacks provided
  • no medications or medical conditions that affect appetite
  • no food allergies

Exclusion Criteria:

  • see above
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
18 Years to 50 Years   (Adult)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
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Jennifer Temple/Assistant Professor, University at Buffalo
State University of New York at Buffalo
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Principal Investigator: Jennifer L Temple, Ph.D. University at Buffalo
State University of New York at Buffalo
February 2009

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP