Efficacy of Influenza Vaccine in HIV Infected Adults

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00757900
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 23, 2008
Last Update Posted : October 9, 2008
Information provided by:
University of Witwatersrand, South Africa

September 19, 2008
September 23, 2008
October 9, 2008
April 2008
September 2008   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • First episode of culture-confirmed influenza illness caused by community-acquired subtypes antigenically similar to the strains included in the influenza vaccine which occurred at least 14 days following study-vaccine administration. [ Time Frame: 1st May 2008 and ending 30th September 2008. ]
  • The antibody response for each virus strain. Seroconversion will be defined as a ≥4-fold increase in antibody titer relative to that season's baseline titer for each strain.
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00757900 on Archive Site
  • Incidence of solicited reactogenic events occurring within 72 hours of vaccination.
  • Changes in CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load.
  • Hospitalization or death for any physician-diagnosed respiratory illness in which influenza virus antigenically similar to vaccine strain is identified.
Same as current
Not Provided
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Efficacy of Influenza Vaccine in HIV Infected Adults
Efficacy of Influenza Vaccine in HIV Infected Adults

Vaccination of HIV infected individuals with the sub-unit influenza vaccine is safe; however it induces only moderate immune responses and likewise is modest in its protection compared to HIV uninfected individuals. Based upon the available data, the South African Thoracic Society has provisionally recommended the use of influenza vaccine in HIV infected individuals with CD4+ counts of > 200/ml and viral loads of < 100 000 copies/ml.(Green R et al. In press, SAMJ). This proposal is however based upon recommendations made elsewhere with minimal level of evidence regarding its benefit, and no evidence from countries with a high prevalence of HIV. Very few HIV infected adults, however, actually do receive influenza vaccine in South Africa, partly because of the absence of compelling data regarding the burden of disease in Africa as well as lack of vaccine effectiveness and issues related to physician awareness and access to influenza vaccine in the public immunization program.

The conflicting evidence, between developed countries and Africa, regarding the effectiveness of PPV highlight the drawbacks of extrapolating vaccine effectiveness data from developed countries to developing countries. Differences in the epidemiology of HIV between developed countries in which the prevalence of HIV is low to that of high-burden sub-Saharan African countries include:

  • differences in the mode of transmission of HIV and demographics of the infected population.
  • differences in standard of care, including access to prophylaxis against opportunistic infections and use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)
  • differences in risk for disease from opportunistic pathogens, e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, etc.

These differences may all contribute to differences in the risk and severity of influenza illness among HIV infected adults from these communities as well as possibly responsiveness and effectiveness of vaccination.

The investigators are conducting a double-blinded, placebo controlled randomized trial at the HIV treatment clinic at Helen Joseph Hospital to determine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in HIV infected adults in South Africa. The significance of the findings from this study will help quantify the burden of influenza illness in African HIV infected adults, as well as assist in making more informed recommendations for the use of influenza vaccine in HIV infected adults and in guiding national policy for preparing for a future influenza virus-pandemic.

Not Provided
Phase 4
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
  • HIV
  • Influenza
  • Vaccination
  • HIV Infections
Biological: MUTAGRIP
Purified polyvalent vaccine for active immunisation against influenza.The vaccine is an inactivated split virus mixture of different group A and B viral strains. One 0.5 ml dose, intramuscular route.
  • Active Comparator: 1
    To receive a sub-unit influenza vaccine
    Intervention: Biological: MUTAGRIP
  • No Intervention: 2
Madhi SA, Maskew M, Koen A, Kuwanda L, Besselaar TG, Naidoo D, Cohen C, Valette M, Cutland CL, Sanne I. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in African adults infected with human immunodeficient virus: double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52(1):128-37. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq004.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Same as current
September 2008
September 2008   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV infected adult on stable first line HAART for more than 3 months or anti-retroviral naïve HIV infected adult with a CD4+ cell count >100 cells/ml performed within the previous 3 months in relation to the date of randomization.
  • Age 18-55 years.
  • Willing and able to maintain weekly contact at least during period of April - August (i.e. presupposed influenza period) either through SMS or telephonic contact.
  • Willing and able to adhere to study protocol re: attendance to clinic for scheduled and illness visits.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any contraindication to influenza vaccination, including known allergy to egg.
  • Currently on treatment for tuberculosis or received treatment for tuberculosis in the past 6 months.
  • History of chronic lung disease which required maintenance therapy either currently or in the past 6 months.
  • Any contraindication to intramuscular injections.
  • Current known grade 3 or grade 4 laboratory or clinical toxicity as per DAIDS toxicity tables.
  • Any previous history of influenza or pneumococcal vaccination.
  • Any plan to vaccinate against influenza or pneumococcal disease during the course of the study.
  • Plan to emigrate from the study area within the next year.
  • On steroid therapy for >21 days (current or within the past 30 days).
  • In the investigators opinion unable to maintain study procedures.
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
South Africa
CHRU02 (Ethics ref no 080212)
Not Provided
Not Provided
Shabir A Madhi, DST/NRF Vaccine Preventable Diseases (University of the Witwatersrand)
University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
Not Provided
Principal Investigator: Shabir A Madhi, MBBCH PhD University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
Principal Investigator: Ian Sanne, MBBCh Clinical HIV Research Unit
University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
September 2008

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP