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Phase 2 Study of the Safety, Tolerability and Pilot Efficacy of Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor Betrixaban Compared to Warfarin (EXPLORE-Xa)

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: August 28, 2008
Last Update Posted: July 14, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Portola Pharmaceuticals
August 26, 2008
August 28, 2008
July 14, 2017
October 2008
August 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
The primary endpoint will be the occurrence of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. [ Time Frame: Up to one year ]
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00742859 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
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Phase 2 Study of the Safety, Tolerability and Pilot Efficacy of Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor Betrixaban Compared to Warfarin
A Phase 2, Randomized, Parallel Group, Dose-Finding, Multicenter, Multinational Study of the Safety, Tolerability and Pilot Efficacy of Three Blinded Doses of the Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor Betrixaban Compared With Open-Label Dose-Adjusted Warfarin in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (EXPLORE Xa)
Prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypothesis: In patients with non-valvular AF, orally administered betrixaban will provide similar or better efficacy and safety than warfarin and it will offer the advantage of not requiring dose adjustments due to INRs outside the target range of 2.0 to 3.0 and a more consistent level of anticoagulation over time.

To assess the safety and tolerability of betrixaban at doses of 40 mg, 60 mg and 80 mg given orally once a day for at least 3 months compared to dose-adjusted warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF).

This is a Phase 2, exploratory, randomized, parallel group, multicenter, active comparator, dose finding study of patients with documented non-valvular AF. Patients will be randomized (1:1:1:1) to 1 of 4 treatment groups (approximately 125 patients per group) using an IVRS. A dynamic randomization will be used to balance patients by country, concurrent aspirin use (yes or no) and antecedent warfarin (yes or no). The study will be open label for randomization to warfarin versus betrixaban, but the three daily doses of betrixaban, 40 mg, 60 mg or 80 mg, will be double-blind (identical capsules for all three dose levels). The warfarin-treated patients will be managed according to each center's usual clinical routine with INR monitoring and dose-adjustments in order to maintain a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 at maximum intervals of four weeks. No loading doses or dose titrations will be used for betrixaban. The betrixaban dose should be ingested in the evening (e.g. at bedtime), preferably at least 2 hours after the evening meal. Note: acenocumerol may be substituted for warfarin as indicated by local practice.

Phase 2
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Atrial Fibrillation
  • Drug: betrixaban
    blinded and randomly assigned: 40 mg, 60mg or 80mg doses, orally, once daily for at least 3 months
  • Drug: Warfarin
    Warfarin will be prescribed by the investigator according to the standard of care.
    Other Names:
    • Coumadin
    • Acenocoumarol
  • Experimental: Arm 1: Betrixaban
    Betrixaban, 40 mg, orally, once daily for at least 3 months.
    Intervention: Drug: betrixaban
  • Experimental: Arm 2: Betrixaban
    Betrixaban, 60 mg, orally, once daily for at least 3 months
    Intervention: Drug: betrixaban
  • Experimental: Arm 3: Betrixaban
    Betrixaban, 80 mg, orally, once daily for at least 3 months
    Intervention: Drug: betrixaban
  • Active Comparator: Arm 4: Warfarin
    Warfarin will be prescribed by investigators according to the standard of care.
    Intervention: Drug: Warfarin
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
November 2009
August 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female, age ≥18 years.
  • If the patient is a woman, she must be without reproductive potential (i.e., postmenopausal for ≥2 years or after hysterectomy).
  • AF at the time of enrollment (randomization) or documented within the last year by Holter, ECG, rhythm strip, pacemaker or other intracardiac recording, resulting in an indication for anticoagulation with warfarin, acenocumerol, phenprocoumon, or other Vitamin K antagonist in the opinion of the treating physician.
  • One or more of the following risk factor(s) for stroke:

    1. Age 75 years or older.
    2. Prior stroke, TIA or systemic (i.e., central nervous system) embolus at least 30 days remote from the time of screening.
    3. Symptomatic congestive heart failure within 3 months echocardiography, radionuclide study or contrast angiography.
    4. Hypertension requiring pharmacological treatment.
    5. Diabetes.
    6. Age of 55 years or older and previous coronary artery disease or known peripheral artery disease.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Body weight less than 40 kg (88 lbs).
  • Need for either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (or likely to require it within one year).
  • AF due to reversible causes (e.g., thyrotoxicosis, pericarditis, cardiac surgery, pulmonary embolism).
  • Mechanical prosthetic valve (bioprosthetic valve is allowed) or valvular disease likely to be operated on within one year.
  • History (including family history) or symptoms of a congenital or acquired bleeding disorder or vascular malformation; or a history of intracranial, retroperitoneal, or intraocular bleeding within the last 6 months; or is felt to be at high risk for bleeding for other reasons including from significant liver disease. This also includes gastrointestinal bleeding within 90 days before randomization or endoscopically verified ulcer disease within 30 days of screening.
  • Conditions other than AF that require chronic anticoagulation (e.g. prosthetic mechanical heart valve).
  • Persistent, uncontrolled hypertension (SBP >160 mm Hg on repeated measurements).
  • Active infective endocarditis.
  • Scheduled major surgery.
  • Planned pulmonary vein ablation or surgical procedure for cure of AF or flutter.
  • Recent ischemic stroke, systemic embolic event or acute coronary syndrome within 30 days.
  • Severe co-morbid condition with life expectancy of ≤1 year.
  • Previous known history of genetic coagulopathy (e.g., Factor V Leiden, Protein C Deficiency, Protein S Deficiency, Antiphospholipid Syndrome, etc.).
  • Evidence at Screening of:

    1. Platelet count <100,000/mm3.
    2. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspirate aminotransferase (AST) >2 times ULN.
    3. A history (including family history) of "Long QT Syndrome".
  • Aspirin >162 mg daily.
  • Use of verapamil (pending the availability of a drug interaction study with betrixaban).
  • Active alcohol or drug abuse, or psychosocial reasons that make study participation impractical.
  • Use of an investigational drug or device within the past 30 days.
  • Inability to comply with INR monitoring or other protocol-related activities.
  • Unable to give written informed consent.
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Canada,   United States
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Portola Pharmaceuticals
Portola Pharmaceuticals
Not Provided
Study Chair: Stuart Connolly, MD, FRCP Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University
Study Director: Rafael Diaz, MD Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario, Argentina
Study Director: Paul Dorian, MD University of Toronto, Canada
Study Director: Michael Ezekowitz, MD, PhD, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research and The Heart Center, United States
Study Director: Stefan H. Hohnloser, MD Johann Wolgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Portola Pharmaceuticals
July 2017

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP
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