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GABA Mechanisms Underlying the Vulnerability to Alcohol Dependence

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
VA Connecticut Healthcare System
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Yale University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00611767
First received: December 27, 2007
Last updated: January 24, 2017
Last verified: November 2016
December 27, 2007
January 24, 2017
November 2005
April 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
  • Visual Analog Scales of Similarity to Alcohol - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    Visual Analog Scale of Similarity to Alcohol data using the Likert scale (0 Not at all similar to alcohol - 7 Extremely similar to alcohol) evaluating the similarity of drug effects to alcohol
Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale, confirmed with other measures such as the Visual Analog Scales [ Time Frame: Baseline, +10, +20, +80, +110, +170, +230 ]
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00611767 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed at Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Number of Drinks Felt Consumed - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    The Number of Drinks Scale asks Subjects to report on the number of alcoholic drinks they felt they had consumed.
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant- 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Stimulant - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure stimulant effects (0 not at all stimulated - 70 extremely stimulated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) - Subscale Sedative - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    Self-report rating scale used to measure sedative effects (0 not at all sedated - 70 extremely sedated)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - High - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure high (0 not at all High - 7 extremely High)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]

    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)

  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Buzzed - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure buzzed (0 not at all buzzed - 7 extremely buzzed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]

    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)

  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Drowsy - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure drowsy (0 not at all drowsy - 7 extremely drowsy)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Depressed - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure depressed (0 not at all depressed - 7 extremely depressed)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - 45 Minutes [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - 170 Minutes [ Time Frame: 170 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Visual Analog Scales (VAS) - Anxious - 230 Minutes [ Time Frame: 230 minutes ]
    visual analog scale (VAS): self-report scale used to measure anxiety (0 not at all anxious - 7 extremely anxious)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Patient Rated - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 84 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Patient Rated - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 84 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Patient Rated - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 84 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Patient Rated - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 84 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Clinician Rated - Baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 20 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Clinician Rated - 15 Minutes [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 20 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Clinician Rated - 80 Minutes [ Time Frame: 80 minutes ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 20 extreme dissociative)
  • Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale - Clinician Rated - 110 Minutes [ Time Frame: 110 minutes ]
    Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS) is a patient and Clinician rated measurement of dissociative states induced by thiopental (0 not at all dissociative - 20 extreme dissociative)
  • Pegboard Task - Baseline (Dominant Hand) [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    The pegboard task is a measure of coordination that measures reaction time; how long a subject takes to insert pegs into a pegboard puzzle, first using their dominant hand then using their non-dominant hand. A quicker time indicates greater coordination. Scores are timed in seconds
  • Pegboard Task - 15 Minutes (Dominant Hand) [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    The pegboard task is a measure of coordination that measures reaction time; how long a subject takes to insert pegs into a pegboard puzzle, first using their dominant hand then using their non-dominant hand. A quicker time indicates greater coordination. Scores are timed in seconds
  • Pegboard Task - Baseline (Non-Dominant Hand) [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    The pegboard task is a measure of coordination that measures reaction time; how long a subject takes to insert pegs into a pegboard puzzle, first using their dominant hand then using their non-dominant hand. A quicker time indicates greater coordination. Scores are timed in seconds.
  • Pegboard Task - 15 Minutes (Non-Dominant Hand) [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    The pegboard task is a measure of coordination that measures reaction time; how long a subject takes to insert pegs into a pegboard puzzle, first using their dominant hand then using their non-dominant hand. A quicker time indicates greater coordination. Scores are timed in seconds.
  • Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) - Total Recall [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) - measures verbal memory and hippocampus function based on word recall. (0 = no words recalled - 36 = all words recalled)
  • Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) - Delayed Recall [ Time Frame: 45 minutes ]
    Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) - measures verbal memory and hippocampus function with word recall at 30 minutes) (0 no words recalled - 12 all words recalled)
  • Verbal Fluency [ Time Frame: 15 minutes ]
    Verbal Fluency Task: requires subjects to generate as many words as possible beginning with a single letter (e.g., "H") during a one-minute interval. (total words in one-minute interval)
potential response P300 measurements, grooved pegboard test [ Time Frame: Baseline and during infusion ]
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
GABA Mechanisms Underlying the Vulnerability to Alcohol Dependence
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Mechanisms Underlying the Vulnerability to Alcohol Dependence
This Project will explore the hypothesis that individuals with a family history positive for alcohol dependence (without any current Axis I disorder, except nicotine dependence), experience an alteration in the reward "valence" (balance of positive and negative effects) of the GABAA receptor agonist barbiturate (thiopental) compared to family history negative age-matched subjects. Further, variation in genes involved in brain GABA function may influence the risk for alcoholism by altering a component of the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol.

This project will explore the hypothesis that individuals with a family history positive for alcohol dependence (FHP) (without any current DSM-IV Axis I disorder, except nicotine dependence), experience an alteration in the reward "valence" (balance of positive and negative effects) of the GABA-A receptor agonist barbiturate (thiopental) compared to family history negative (FHN) age-matched subjects. Further, the effect of variations in genes important in regulating brain GABA function may alter a component of the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol. FHP individuals are defined as individuals with at least one first-degree relative and another first- or second-degree relatives. Preliminary results suggest that FHP individuals showed an attenuated response to thiopental as measured by the descending limb of the BAES during thiopental infusion relative to the FHN group. Further, preliminary results suggest that variation in genes involved in brain GABA function, glutamate decarboxylase-65 (GAD65), may influence the risk for alcoholism by altering a component of the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol.

We plan to recruit 2 groups of healthy subjects between the ages of 21-30, one with a family history of alcoholism (family history positive=FHP) and a sex-matched control group without a family history of alcoholism (family history negative=FHN), to undergo two test days scheduled 3 days apart, in a randomized double-blind fashion. Test days will involve a 60-minute intravenous infusion of each of 2 conditions: saline or thiopental, in a randomized order under double-blind conditions. Behavioral ratings include the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and Visual Analog Scales (VAS). Exploratory measures include event-related potential recordings (ERP) and measures of eye-to-hand coordination. Blood will be collected for Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and genotyping.

Interventional
Not Provided
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Participant, Outcomes Assessor
Primary Purpose: Health Services Research
Alcoholism
  • Drug: Thiopental
    A 2-day test design involving 2 conditions: saline (Placebo) or Thiopental 1.5mg/kg (loading) with a subsequent infusion rate of 40 mcg/kg/minute (60 minute infusion).
  • Drug: Placebo
    A 2-day test design involving 2 conditions: saline (Placebo) or Thiopental 1.5mg/kg (loading) with a subsequent infusion rate of 40 mcg/kg/minute (60 minute infusion).
  • Active Comparator: Family History Negative for Alcoholism
    Family History Negative for Alcoholism subjects will receive 2 interventions
    Intervention: Drug: Thiopental
  • Placebo Comparator: Family History Positive for Alcoholism
    Family History Positive for Alcoholism subjects will receive 2 interventions
    Intervention: Drug: Placebo
Petrakis IL, Kerfoot K, Pittman B, Perrino A, Koretski J, Newcomb J, Limoncelli D, Acampora G, Ralevski E. Subjective Effects of Thiopental in Young Adults with and without a Family History of Alcoholism. J Addict Res Ther. 2012 May 14;Suppl 7(2). pii: 6336.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
73
April 2012
April 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Male and female between the ages of 21 and 30 years
  2. medically and neurologically healthy on the basis of history, physical examination, Electrocardiogram (EKG), screening laboratories
  3. absence of any evidence of substance abuse (with the exception of nicotine dependence) on the basis of history and drug and ethanol-free at the time of testing based on urine toxicology and breath alcohol levels at screening and on each test day.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Axis I psychiatric and substance abuse or dependence diagnosis by history on psychiatric evaluation that includes a structured diagnostic interview (SCID)
  2. unwillingness to remain alcohol-free for three days prior to each test day;
  3. for women, positive pregnancy test at screening or intention to engage in unprotected sex during the study and
  4. alcohol naive. For Family History Positive Subjects: 1) Biological father and another first or second-degree biological relative with history of alcoholism by Family History Assessment Module (FHAM) developed by The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA).

For Family History Negative Subjects: NO family history of alcoholism in any first or second-degree relatives. Subjects must reliably report on three first-degree relatives.

Sexes Eligible for Study: All
21 Years to 30 Years   (Adult)
Yes
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
 
 
NCT00611767
0510000664
VA Merit Grant
Yes
Not Provided
Not Provided
Not Provided
Yale University
Yale University
VA Connecticut Healthcare System
Principal Investigator: Ismene L Petrakis, MD Yale University
Yale University
November 2016

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP