COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.
Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH: Menu

Sodium Oxybate in Schizophrenia With Insomnia

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00594256
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 15, 2008
Results First Posted : February 8, 2016
Last Update Posted : February 8, 2016
Jazz Pharmaceuticals
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Daniel C. Javitt, MD, PhD, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE January 3, 2008
First Posted Date  ICMJE January 15, 2008
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE June 6, 2011
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE February 8, 2016
Last Update Posted Date February 8, 2016
Study Start Date  ICMJE May 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date April 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 5, 2016)
  • Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
    This rating scale generates a global sleep-quality score, as well as scores on 7 components of sleep quality: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The 19 items are combined to form seven "component" scores, each of which has a range of O-3 points. The seven component scores are then added to yield one "global" score, with a range of O-21 points, "0" indicating no difficulty and "21" indicating severe difficulties in all areas.
  • Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
    Designed to measure daytime sleepiness. 8 items rated 0-3, with higher scores associated with a greater daytime sleepiness. overall score rated 0-24, with scores greater than 10 indicating significant daytime sleepiness.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 14, 2008)
  • Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
  • Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 5, 2016)
  • Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Negative Factor [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
    The PANSS Negative factor is a 7-item rating scale widely used in the assessment of schizophrenia. Range is 7-49 with higher scores worse
  • MATRICS Neurocognitive Battery Composite [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
    This is a series of neurocognitive tests developed by the National Institute of Mental Health to evaluate medications targeting cognition in an efficient and reliable manner. It will be modified by the deletion of the social competence domain. The six domains include speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning and reasoning/problem solving. The primary outcome will be the mean T-score (mean of six domains).
  • Slow Wave Sleep Minutes [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
    Overnight sleep study: Subjects will undergo polysomnography four times during this study, on consecutive nights during the observation week and on consecutive nights at the end. Polysomnography will be performed in a modified seclusion room on the in patient unit. The first of the consecutive nights will be used for adaptation to the study conditions. Sleep was recorded between lights off (10 pm) and lights on (at 6:45 am). We aim for conditions for falling asleep as comfortable as possible under the experimental condition.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 14, 2008)
  • Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
  • MATRICS+ neurocognitive battery [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
  • Polysomnographic Measures [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Sodium Oxybate in Schizophrenia With Insomnia
Official Title  ICMJE Open Label, Pilot Study of Adjunctive Xyrem (Sodium Oxybate) for the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Associated Sleep Disturbances
Brief Summary The present protocol proposes study of the recently approved compound sodium oxybate (Xyrem), a gamma-aminobutyric acid type b (GABAB) and a g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) receptor agonist, for the study of persistent symptoms of schizophrenia. Sodium oxybate is a central nervous system depressant currently approved for treatment of narcolepsy associated with cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition to evaluating effects on sodium oxybate on persistent symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia, the study will test the hypothesis that this medication may be particularly effective in combating Insomnia Related to Schizophrenia, and in normalizing symptomatic and polysomnographic manifestations of sleep-related brain dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Detailed Description

Rationale/Study Hypothesis:

Rationale for study of sodium oxybate is twofold: first, sleep dysfunction is an important and overlooked aspect of schizophrenia intrinsically linked to cognitive and functional impairments, and, second, GABAB receptors regulate dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in vivo, suggesting that GABAB agonists may be therapeutically beneficial in schizophrenia.

We are aware of three previous trials of GHB in schizophrenia, two of which did not show any overall benefit in psychopathology. We noted multiple limitations in the controlled trials, including:

  1. requirement of cumbersome dosing patterns (up to six times a day) that could have led to incomplete compliance,
  2. lack of objective measures of subjective sleep or sleep architecture,
  3. lack of objective cognitive testing,
  4. use of GHB as monotherapy or only in conjunction with only low dose antipsychotics,
  5. short trial duration (less than 4 weeks),
  6. relatively low overall night-time dose of GHB, and
  7. a heterogeneous, small sample.

We propose an open label, proof of concept study evaluating the effect of sodium oxybate on insomnia in schizophrenia. The primary hypothesis of the study is that patients treated with sodium oxybate will show improved subjective sleep as measured by the overall Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Secondarily, we expect superior reduction in total psychopathology and PANSS factor scales (PANSS), polysomnographic measures, and neurocognition (MATRICS).

Design and dosage schedule:

We plan to enroll eight hospitalized patients with diagnostic & statistical manual text revision (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia and insomnia related to schizophrenia. The study will include: a one-week evaluation period, which will include tapering of any hypnotics, baseline diagnostic, psychopathology, neurocognitive, electrophysiological and polysomnographic measurements. Patients will then begin a four-week trial of adjunctive sodium oxybate, with a three-week taper of sodium oxybate to follow. Hypnotic/sodium oxybate taper may be extended or abbreviated, depending on clinical judgment.

Patients entering the study will be permitted to receive both typical and atypical antipsychotics. Treating psychiatrists will be encouraged to maintain fixed doses of all psychotropic medication throughout the study.

Other than haloperidol and benztropine prn (up to 10 mg/day of haloperidol), the prescription of a new psychotropic will not be permitted. After the second week of study medication, any subject requiring more than 4 doses of haloperidol in one week will be considered to have relapsed, and will be withdrawn from the study.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Schizophrenia
  • Insomnia Related to Schizophrenia (307.42)
Intervention  ICMJE Drug: Sodium Oxybate
Patients will undergo a one-week evaluation period, which will include a taper and discontinuation of any currently prescribed sedative/hypnotics, as well as baseline diagnostic, psychopathology, neurocognitive and polysomnographic measurements (see below for details). Hypnotic taper may be extended or abbreviated, depending on clinical judgment. Patients will then begin a 4-week trial of adjunctive Xyrem (sodium oxybate). Patients will begin at 4.5 g/night (in divided doses of 2.25 g, with 1st dose at bedtime and then 2nd dose four hours later). Dosage will increase by 1.5 g/day every week, until a dose of 9 g nightly is reached, or a patient cannot tolerate further dose escalations. Medication will be administered in divided dosage for the duration of the study. A three-week taper (by 3 g/day weekly) of sodium oxybate will follow the four-week trial of sodium oxybate.
Other Name: Xyrem
Study Arms  ICMJE Experimental: Sodium oxybate
Active treatment
Intervention: Drug: Sodium Oxybate
Publications * Kantrowitz JT, Oakman E, Bickel S, Citrome L, Spielman A, Silipo G, Battaglia J, Javitt DC. The importance of a good night's sleep: an open-label trial of the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in insomnia associated with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010 Jul;120(1-3):225-6. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.03.035.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 14, 2008)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE April 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date April 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients aged 18-45 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and insomnia related to schizophrenia, confirmed by a structured interview (SCID).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Lack of capacity to give informed consent (capacity is determined by a licensed member of the treatment team).
  • Unstable medical illness.
  • Diagnosis of restless leg syndrome, a seizure disorder, uncontrolled hypertension, unstable cardiac illness, or obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Pregnancy or lack of adequate birth control.
  • History of substance dependence disorder.
  • Current treatment with valproic acid.
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADH).
  • Persistent need for treatment with benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opiates or other sedative hypnotics.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00594256
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 07I/C36-0
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Daniel C. Javitt, MD, PhD, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
Collaborators  ICMJE Jazz Pharmaceuticals
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Daniel C Javitt, MD PhD Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
PRS Account Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
Verification Date January 2016

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP