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Epidural Cortical Stimulation for Depression (EpCS-D)

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified July 2009 by Medical University of South Carolina.
Recruitment status was:  Active, not recruiting
National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression
Information provided by:
Medical University of South Carolina Identifier:
First received: November 29, 2007
Last updated: July 6, 2009
Last verified: July 2009
November 29, 2007
July 6, 2009
October 2007
December 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
HDRS-24 items [ Time Frame: 5 months from baseline ]
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00565617 on Archive Site
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Epidural Cortical Stimulation for Depression
A Pilot Safety and Efficacy Study of Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (EpCS) in Severe Treatment Resistant Depression
Objective: Chronic epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) involves the neurosurgical placement of an electric wire on the surface of the brain with intermittent activation. Over time, ECS modulates local and distal connected brain regions. It is being currently applied over the motor cortex to treat intractable pain. Because of the important role played by the medial prefrontal cortex in mood regulation, the goal of this study is to apply this minimally invasive neurostimulation modality over medial prefrontal cortex in severely ill depressed subjects who have failed all other attempts at treatment.

Hypothesis: Severely Treatment Resistant Unipolar Depressed Subjects with EpCS of medial prefrontal cortex will show a significant decrease in depression symptoms at 6 months post-implant when compared to baseline and to a matched control group treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

Method: We will enroll 5 subjects with severe refractory depression in an open trial with a 1 month placebo lead in, and for up to 1 years. We will also naturalistically follow 5 matched control patients treated with ECT. Depressive and cognitive symptoms will be rated periodically to assess the safety and efficacy of this procedure.

Significance: This study takes advantage of the expertise at MUSC with various neuromodulation technologies to begin answering the crucial role of targeted cortical brain stimulation and its potential role in treatment resistant depression. This is a crucial pilot study that might lead to an entire new class of therapies for depression.

Phase 3
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Treatment Resistant Depression
  • Device: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    Naturalistic follow up of ECT outpatient maintenance therapy with/without psychotropic medications
  • Device: Synergy, Epidural cortical stimulation
    Epidural cortical stimulation
    Other Name: Epidural cortical stimulation
  • Experimental: 1
    Epidural cortical stimulation (medial prefrontal cortex)
    Intervention: Device: Synergy, Epidural cortical stimulation
  • Active Comparator: 2
    Naturalistic follow up of outpatient ECT maintenance
    Intervention: Device: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Unknown status
December 2009
December 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

To be eligible for this study, a subject must meet all the following inclusion and exclusion criteria:

  • Subject has a diagnosis of chronic (≥ two years) or recurrent (multiple prior episodes) depression and is currently experiencing a major depressive episode without psychotic features as defined by DSM IV criteria.
  • Subjects may have a diagnosis or unipolar or bipolar depressive episode.
  • Subject has not had an adequate response to 4 or more adequate antidepressant treatments in the current depressive episode according to the Antidepressant Treatment History Form (ATHF) (Sackeim et al 1997).
  • Subject must be between the ages of 21 and 80.
  • Baseline HDRS 24-item ≥ 20 (both visits 1 week apart)
  • Subject must be able to complete the evaluations needed for this study including the functional imaging scans.
  • Subject must have had a history of one successful course of ECT in the past.
  • Subject must provide written informed consent.
  • Subject is stable on all antidepressant medication for at least 4 weeks before the baseline visit or not be taking antidepressant medication prior to entering the study.
  • Subject must be able to remain on current medication schedule for the first 19 weeks of the study.
  • Subject is not on a medication known to increase the risk of cortical stimulation-induced seizures. These include theophylline, stimulant medications, bupropion, or supraphysiological doses of thyroid supplements.

Exclusion Criteria:

The presence of any of the following will exclude a subject from the study:

  • The EpCS would (in the investigator's judgment) pose an unacceptable surgical or medical risk for the patient (including, but not limited to: history of serious cardiac or pulmonary problems, stroke, significant brain malformation, progressive neurological disease, central nervous system disease or injury, history of seizure, previous neurosurgical procedure with suspected brain tissue scarring that would increase the risks for seizure or cervical fracture).
  • Subject received general anesthetic within the last 30 days prior to enrollment (not including ECT procedure).
  • Subject currently has another investigational device or cardiac pacemaker, implantable defibrillator, or other implantable stimulator
  • Subject on anticoagulant drugs, with low platelets counts or have PT or PTT abnormalities or other risk factors for intra-operative or post-operative bleeding
  • Subject is expected to require full body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the clinical study.
  • Subject is judged by the investigator to be acutely suicidal (e.g. within the 30 days prior to the EpCS implant, the subject has made a suicide attempt or gesture or has made specific plans or preparation to commit suicide).
  • Subject has a history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other psychotic disorder, active substance abuse or dependence (with the exception to caffeine and nicotine abuse) or a current major depressive episode that includes psychotic features (commonly referred to as psychotic depression) according to the DSM IV criteria.
  • Subject with a diagnosis of dementia with a Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) ≤23.
  • Female subjects with a positive urine pregnancy test.
  • Subject with a positive urine drug screen or current alcohol or substance abuse other than nicotine and caffeine.
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
21 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
HR - 16908
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Ziad Nahas, MD, MUSC
Medical University of South Carolina
  • Medtronic
  • National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression
Principal Investigator: Ziad Nahas, MD, MSCR Medical University of South Carolina
Medical University of South Carolina
July 2009

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP