Combined Pharmaco/Behavior Therapy in Adolescent Smokers

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00330187
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified April 2006 by Medical University of South Carolina.
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
First Posted : May 26, 2006
Last Update Posted : May 26, 2006
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Information provided by:
Medical University of South Carolina

May 25, 2006
May 26, 2006
May 26, 2006
March 2004
Not Provided
  • urine cotinine
  • self-report
Same as current
No Changes Posted
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Combined Pharmaco/Behavior Therapy in Adolescent Smokers
Combined Pharmaco/Behavior Therapy in Adolescent Smokers

In the current proposal, we intend to study the efficacy of bupropion SR with or without combined contingency management (CM) among adolescent cigarette smokers. The proposed study will test not only medication (bupropion SR), but also combination of medication and CM in potentially improving smoking cessation outcomes AND retention of adolescent smokers in the study.

Hypothesis to be tested: Bupropion SR treatment will increase abstinence from cigarette smoking (as measured by urine cotinine and continuous abstinence) in adolescent smokers as compared to treatment with placebo only.

Hypothesis to be tested: Adolescent smokers treated with combined bupropion SR + contingency management (CM) treatment will have increased retention and increased abstinence rates when compared to bupropion SR alone or CM + placebo treated groups (as measured by decreased drop-out of participants, urine cotinine and continuous abstinence).

Hypothesis to be tested: CM will increase the abstinence from cigarette smoking (as measured by urine cotinine and continuous abstinence) in adolescent smokers as compared to treatment with placebo only.

To test the hypotheses, 216 adolescent smokers will be recruited. Fifty-four adolescent smokers will be recruited in each of the four groups: bupropion SR only, bupropion SR + CM, CM + placebo, and placebo only. The cells will be balanced for gender and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using permuted block randomization. A counseling intervention was added for all groups because it was reasoned that it would be unethical not to provide an active treatment to cigarette smoking adolescents. The counseling intervention will consist of two quit smoking brochures that provide information on tips to help quit smoking.

The study will consist of a one-week lead in period followed by a six-week treatment trial. For the medication groups, medications will be titrated during the one-week lead-in period. The primary outcome measure is urine cotinine and self-report of cigarette use collected using the Time-Line Follow-Back at the end of six weeks.

Not Applicable
Allocation: Randomized
Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Nicotine Dependence
  • Nicotine Use Disorder
  • Drug: Bupropion SR
  • Behavioral: Contingency Management
Not Provided
Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, Hartwell KJ, Lewis AL, Hiott DW, Deas D, Upadhyaya HP. Bupropion SR and contingency management for adolescent smoking cessation. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2011 Jan;40(1):77-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2010.08.010. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Unknown status
Same as current
September 2008
Not Provided

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Regular cigarette smokers smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day as derived by Time-Line Follow-Back method (Sobell et al., 1988). Average number of cigarettes per day (over past 30 days) will be used. Five cigarettes per day may seem low, but based on previous studies, adolescents tend to smoke fewer cigarettes per day as compared to adults.
  2. Baseline urine cotinine level greater than 100 ng/ml.
  3. Age range of 12 – 21
  4. If under 18 yr. of age, parent(s) or guardian(s) able to participate in informed consent and initial assessment, or the participant must provide evidence of emancipated status.
  5. For post menarchal female participants: agree to use birth control to avoid pregnancy.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Active substance abuse/dependence (other than nicotine) within 2 weeks prior to participating in the study
  2. Lifetime bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), psychosis, eating disorders. Bupropion may have adverse consequence on participants with these psychiatric diagnoses.
  3. Current major depressive disorders. Since bupropion is also an antidepressant, this criteria is to minimize the confound of depressive disorder during the study. History of depressive disorders and current attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not be an exclusion. We will use permuted block randomization procedure to balance the groups for ADHD.
  4. Pregnancy or lactation. The safety of bupropion in pregnancy and during lactation is not well studied.
  5. History of seizure disorder or predisposition to seizures (e.g., history of significant head trauma, currently taking medications that lower seizure threshold), since bupropion can lower seizure threshold.
  6. History of severe renal, hepatic, neurological, or chronic pulmonary disease. This criterion was chosen due to the hepatic metabolism of bupropion.
  7. Unstable medical problems
  8. Allergy to bupropion
  9. Current treatment with any other medication containing bupropion
  10. Current treatment with any monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors currently or within 2 weeks of starting the study since there may be serious and severe medical interactions between MAO inhibitors and bupropion SR.
  11. Current treatment with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)
  12. History of intolerance or non-response to bupropion SR.
  13. Current (past month) suicide ideation
  14. Suicide attempt (past year)
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
12 Years to 21 Years   (Child, Adult)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
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Medical University of South Carolina
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Principal Investigator: Himanshu P Upadhyaya, MS, MBBS Medical University of South Carolina
Medical University of South Carolina
April 2006

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP