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Motivational Interviewing to Improve Work Outcomes in Schizophrenia

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
VA Office of Research and Development
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00261716
First received: December 1, 2005
Last updated: June 17, 2016
Last verified: June 2016

December 1, 2005
June 17, 2016
January 2005
September 2008   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • Obtained Employment [ Time Frame: 18 months of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of participants who obtained a competitive job
  • Average Number of Days Worked [ Time Frame: 18 months of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Average number of total days each participant worked in the study
  • Average Number of Hours Worked Per Week For Those Who Worked [ Time Frame: 18 months of study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Average number of hours worked per week among participants who obtained a job
Employment status, number of hours worked, and total wages at six, 12, and 18 months
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00261716 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Obtained a Second Job if Lost First Job and Still Had at Least 2 Months in the Program [ Time Frame: 18 months of the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of participants who obtained a second or third job if lost his/her first job but still had at least 2 months in the study
  • Association Between Employment Status and Psychiatric Symptoms as Measured on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [ Time Frame: 6,12, 18 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Employment status at each major follow-up assessment period and psychiatric symptomatology as reflected in the Total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Score (Ventura J, et al., Training and quality assurance with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/P). Psychiatry Research, 1998. 79(2): p. 163-173) with scale range from 24 to 168, with higher scores indicating greater symptomatology
  • Association Between Employment Status and Self-reported Life Satisfaction Measured on the Quality of Life Scale (Lehman) [ Time Frame: 6,12, 18 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Employment status at each major follow-up assessment period and self-reported Life Satisfaction (range from 1 (terrible) to 7 (delighted)) on the Quality of Life Scale (Lehman A, Kernan E, and Postrado L, Toolkit for Evaluating Quality of Life for Persons with Severe Mental Illness. 1995, Baltimore, MD: The Evaluation Center at HSRI).
  • Association Between Employment Status and Overall Adjustment as Rated on the Social Adjustment Scale II (Schooler) [ Time Frame: 6, 12, and 18 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Employment status at each major follow-up assessment period and overall adjustment as rated on the Social Adjustment Scale II (Schooler, N., G. Hogarty, and M. Weissman, Social Adjustment Scale II (SAS-II), in Resource Materials for Community Mental Health Program Evaluations, W.A. Hargreaves, C.C. Atkisson, and J.E. Sorenson, Editors. 1979, NIMH: Rockville, MD. p. 290-303), on a 1 (excellent adjustment ) to 7 (severe maladjustment) scale.
Social functioning assessed on the Social Adjustment Scale II at six, 12, and 18 months
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Motivational Interviewing to Improve Work Outcomes in Schizophrenia
Motivational Interviewing to Improve Work Outcomes in Schizophrenia
Many persons with schizophrenia have difficulty getting and keeping a job. This study is designed to compare the benefits of four sessions of motivational interviewing or illness education in increasing employment rates accruing from participation in supported employment.
Many individuals with serious psychiatric illnesses wish to work, and yet employment rates for this population are lower than the general population (Cook & Razanno, 2000). IPS is a type of supported employment intervention designed to assist individuals with serious psychiatric illnesses return to work. Over 20 randomized trials demonstrate that, in comparison to control conditions such as group therapy or referrals to traditional vocational rehabilitation services, IPS participants are three more times more likely to obtain a job during the study, and at least twice as likely to be competitively employed at any point in the study. Just as with the general population, the rewards of work for individuals with serious mental illness include considerably more than the financial remuneration. For example, employment appears to confer higher self-esteem, greater life satisfaction, and perhaps even better treatment compliance, symptom improvement, and insight in persons with psychiatric illnesses (Bell et al, 1996; Lysacker et al, 1995; Mueser et al, 1997; Bond et al, 1997; Kashner et al, 2002). Despite its demonstrated effectiveness, these IPS results could be improved. Most IPS participants are not competitively employed at any point in time, it takes an average of about four months to obtain a first job, a typical job lasts only approximately 20-25 weeks, and employment rates across the sample asymptote at about month 8 or 9 of participation in the trials. Furthermore, obtaining a first job seems to be an almost insurmountable impediment for approximately 35-40% of individuals in the trials, and these findings may be worse in individuals iwth schizophrenia (Twamely et al, 2003) . Motivational deficits may play a prominent role in explaining the limited benefits accruing from IPS in persons with serious and persisting psychiatric illnesses, especially in those with schizophrenia. Building a successful work life requires sustained effort over months and years (Palmer, 1989). After a period of unemployment, individuals must obtain their first reemployment position, and then transition to others as circumstances arise. Many persons with schizophrenia experience high degrees of negative symptoms, demoralization, and ambivalence, which likely all interfere with the persistent efforts required to initiate and maintain a successful vocational adjustment. Enhancing already validated vocational rehabilitation programs, such as IPS, with specific techniques to address motivational deficits may be essential to increasing employment rates among persons with schizophrenia. In this study, we tested a novel strategy designed to improve motivation for positive behavior change, motivational interviewing, adapted for work-related problems, in persons with schizophrenia. With the objective of improving work outcomes, we assigned 38 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to one of two 18 month psychosocial treatment groups, traditional Individual Placement and Support (IPS) with the addition of illness education (IE) about schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, as appropriate, or with the addition of Vocationally-oriented Motivational Interviewing (VOMI). We hypothesized that: 1) clients with schizophrenia who participated in IPS+VOMI would better vocational outcomes than IPS+IE clients. 2) If they are separated from their first job, clients with schizophrenia who participate in IPS+VOMI would be more likely to obtain a second job than clients who receive IPS+IE; and 3) Regardless of their treatment condition, working clients with schizophrenia would have greater social adjustment, symptoms, and life satisfaction than those who are not working.
Interventional
Phase 3
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Schizoaffective Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Behavioral: IPS
    Individual Placement and Support Evidence based supported employment
  • Behavioral: IE
    Four sessions of manualized illness education about schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (tailored to the participant diagnosis) prior to each course of a job search
  • Behavioral: VOMI
    Four sessions of manualized motivational interviewing oriented to employment goals and concerns prior to each course of a job search
  • Experimental: IPS and VOMI
    Individual Placement and Support (IPS), a form of evidence-based supported employment with 4 sessions of manualized vocationally-oriented motivational interviewing (VOMI) prior to each course of job searching
    Interventions:
    • Behavioral: IPS
    • Behavioral: VOMI
  • Active Comparator: IPS and IE
    Individual placement and support (IPS), a form of evidence-based supported employment with 4 sessions of education about schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (IE), as appropriate, prior to each course of job searching
    Interventions:
    • Behavioral: IPS
    • Behavioral: IE
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
38
February 2010
September 2008   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patient must have schizophrenia or schizoaffective disease
  • Currently unemployed but want to get at least a part time job
  • Be on a stable medication regimen and compliant with treatment
  • Live within one hour of the hospital
  • Be willing to have care transferred to the Schizophrenia Outpatient Clinic at VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Organic brain disease
  • Physical illnesses that would preclude working
Both
18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
 
NCT00261716
O3176-R
No
Yes
Contact PI for access to data
VA Office of Research and Development
VA Office of Research and Development
Not Provided
Principal Investigator: Shirley M. Glynn, PhD VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, West LA
VA Office of Research and Development
June 2016

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP