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CQSP in Malawi: Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine Efficacy for the Treatment of Malaria in Malawi

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00125489
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 1, 2005
Last Update Posted : August 27, 2010
Sponsor:
Information provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE July 29, 2005
First Posted Date  ICMJE August 1, 2005
Last Update Posted Date August 27, 2010
Study Start Date  ICMJE May 2005
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE CQSP in Malawi: Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine Efficacy for the Treatment of Malaria in Malawi
Official Title  ICMJE Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Efficacy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Blantyre, Malawi
Brief Summary The purpose of this research study is to find out how well chloroquine works as a drug to treat malaria in children, compared to the standard malaria treatment in Malawi. In preparation for a longer study of the malaria treatment medication chloroquine alone and in combination with other drugs, a shorter pre-study will be done to compare the anti-malarial effectiveness of chloroquine versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the standard treatment in Malawi. Two hundred ten children, ages 6 months to 12 years, around Blantyre, Malawi, will be given standard dosing of either chloroquine or SP when they come to the Ndirande Health Centre with signs or symptoms consistent with malaria. The first 30 participants in each treatment group will remain under continuous observation at the health center so that the researchers can monitor their response to the medication until the infection goes away. The participants will be followed for 28 days to see if the the treatment works or fails.
Detailed Description This study follows the observation that chloroquine-resistant malaria may have returned to Malawi, 10 years after its use was eliminated. There is growing consensus that combination chemotherapy should be the rule in malaria treatment to deter the development of drug resistance and possibly also decrease malaria transmission. As sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) failure rates increase, the reintroduction of chloroquine in Malawi in combination with highly effective rapidly acting drugs such as artesunate and chlorproguanil-dapsone should be considered, and would likely extend the useful life span of each of the drugs. In preparation for a longitudinal clinical trial of chloroquine alone and SP in combination with other drugs, a preliminary trial will be conducted to compare the anti-malarial efficacy of chloroquine versus SP, the standard treatment in Malawi. This is a randomized, open-label clinical trial to compare the antimalarial efficacy of chloroquine versus SP among children with uncomplicated malaria in Blantyre, Malawi. In this study, 210 peri-urban children will be randomly assigned to receive standard dosing of either chloroquine or SP. Follow up will consist of visits on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28, according to the standard World Health Organization protocol. Because chloroquine has not been used to treat malaria in Malawi for over a decade, special safety precautions will be taken at the beginning of the study. The first 30 participants in each arm will remain at the Health Centre under continuous observation of the medical staff to monitor response to therapy until they are afebrile for 12 hours and have two consecutive negative 12-hourly blood smears. Observation in an inpatient setting will also help to avoid potential bias due to more intense follow-up of the hospitalized group. A Safety Monitoring Committee (SMC) will meet after the first 30 participants have been enrolled in each arm to determine if the study should stop continuous observation and proceed with out-patient follow up only. All participants will be followed for 28 days to monitor for late therapeutic or parasitologic failure. The primary study objective is to assess the efficacy of chloroquine compared with standard SP therapy, in treating malaria in Malawi, where chloroquine has not been used for over 10 years and to compare it to the efficacy of standard therapy with SP. The secondary study objective is to assess the effect of the re-introduction of chloroquine on the molecular markers associated with chloroquine resistance. The primary study endpoint is the rates of adequate clinical and parasitologic response to therapy. The secondary study endpoints are: (1) rates of early and late therapeutic failure; (2) rates of early and late parasitologic failure; (3) prevalence of chloroquine-resistance conferring pfcrt K76T mutation in pre-treatment infections; (4) rates of pre- and post-treatment pfcrt K76T mutation in cases of chloroquine treatment failure; (5) prevalence of SP-resistance conferring dhfr/dhps mutations in pre-treatment infections; (6) rates of pre- and post-treatment dhfr/dhps mutations in cases of SP treatment failure; (7) clearance time of parasitemia; (8) clearance time of fever; and (9) presence of post-treatment anemia.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 4
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Malaria
  • Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: chloroquine sulfate
  • Drug: sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine
Study Arms  ICMJE Not Provided
Publications * Laufer MK, Thesing PC, Eddington ND, Masonga R, Dzinjalamala FK, Takala SL, Taylor TE, Plowe CV. Return of chloroquine antimalarial efficacy in Malawi. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1959-66.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: July¬†29,¬†2005)
210
Original Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Study Completion Date  ICMJE December 2005
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients aged >= 6 months to 12 years presenting to Ndirande Health Centre with signs or symptoms consistent with malaria including but not limited to one or more of the following:

    • fever at the time of evaluation (axillary temperature 37.5° C by digital thermometer)
    • report of fever within the last two days
    • profound anemia (conjunctival or palmar pallor)
    • headache
    • body aches
    • abdominal pain
    • decreased intake of food or fluids
    • weakness
  2. Positive malaria smear for P. falciparum mono-infection
  3. Parasite density of 2,000-200,000/microliter or < 10%
  4. Willingness to remain at the Health Centre under continuous observation until the resolution of the infection
  5. Parental consent for each participant, and child assent for children older than 5 years

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Signs of severe malaria: One or more of the following:

    • hemoglobin < 5 g/dl
    • parasitemia > 10%
    • prostration * as indicated by inability to drink or breastfeed
    • respiratory distress (deep Kussmaul respirations)
    • bleeding
    • recent seizures*, coma* or mental obtundation* (Blantyre coma score less than 5)
    • persistent vomiting*
  2. Presence of a severe disease
  3. Presence of a febrile condition caused by diseases other than malaria
  4. Known allergy or history of adverse reaction to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP), sulfa drugs or chloroquine
  5. Chronic medication with an antifolate drug
  6. Enrollment in this clinical study in the past 28 days *Each of these symptoms or signs is considered a "danger sign."
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 6 Months to 12 Years   (Child)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Malawi
Removed Location Countries United States
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00125489
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 05-0012
Has Data Monitoring Committee Not Provided
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Not Provided
Study Sponsor  ICMJE National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE Not Provided
PRS Account National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Verification Date March 2007

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP