Trial of Male Circumcision: HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and Behavioral Effects in Men, Women and the Community
Recruitment status was: Active, not recruiting
|First Received Date ICMJE||July 25, 2005|
|Last Updated Date||August 9, 2007|
|Start Date ICMJE||August 2003|
|Primary Completion Date||Not Provided|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Change History||Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00124878 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site|
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Current Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Original Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Trial of Male Circumcision: HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and Behavioral Effects in Men, Women and the Community|
|Official Title ICMJE||Trial of Male Circumcision: HIV, STD and Behavioral Effects in Men, Women and the Community|
This randomized controlled trial conducted in Rakai District, Uganda, has enrolled 997 HIV positive men and 500 men who declined to learn HIV results (regardless of HIV status). The hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in both groups and will reduce the rates of STD acquisition in both groups and of HIV acquisition in HIV-negative men.
Enrollment was ended on Dec 12, 2006, following an interim Data Monitoring and Safety Board (DSMB) review of a closed report. At that time the DSMB determined that futility with respect to the female HIV outcome. There was an non-significantly higher rate of HIV acquisition in women partners of HIV+ men in couples who had resumed sex prior to certified post-surgical wound healing. The data indicated significant reductions (~50%) in GUD symptoms among circumcised HIV+ men. The DSMB recommended: 1) that men and women should continue to be followed in complete two year follow up on all, 2) that circumcision for remaining HIV+ intervention arm men and for control arm men who had completed their 2 year follow should continue, contingent on a) revision of the study protocol to add additional post-surgical visits to assess wound healing, b) protocol revision to further strengthen education for both male and female partners on the need to postpone sex until certified wound healing, and c) approval of the revised protocol by the IRBs in both the US and Uganda. 3) An additional follow up visit for women be instituted at 18 months after enrollment. Protocol revision and IRB approvals have been finalized in June, 2007.
The study has also enrolled and is following 3,700 women sexual partners of men enrolled in this study and in a complementary National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded study (U1 AI51171 which is separately registered). The hypotheses are that male circumcision will be acceptable to and safe in women partners, and will reduce the women's acquisition of HIV and STDs such as herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV).
The study is being carried out by the Rakai Health Sciences Program, a research collaboration between the Uganda Virus Research Institute/Uganda Ministry of Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and researchers from Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
The Gates-funded study being registered here is complementary to a separate NIH-funded trial of male circumcision in HIV-negative men who accept their HIV results, being carried out by the Rakai Health Sciences Program study team. The latter study, which is enrolling 5000 HIV-negative men, is designed to answer whether male circumcision is acceptable and safe in HIV-neg men, and whether the procedure reduces the acquisition of HIV and STDs.
The complementary Gates-funded trial is designed to answer the following additional questions:
These questions are of great importance for future circumcision programs:
From prior Rakai Program data, the researchers know that men who decline their HIV results tend to have higher risk behaviors. Determining potential circumcision risks in these men (such as, potentially delayed healing because of their higher risk behaviors) or benefits (such as potentially, reduced rates of HIV and STD acquisition) is thus very important for the design of any future large scale circumcision programs. From the public health viewpoint, it will be important to know whether such programs should include or exclude men who decline HIV results. (Please note: the Rakai Program strongly recommends and encourages the receipt of HIV results, and provides the results confidentially and free of charge. The great majority of Rakai Program research participants (85-90%) accept their HIV results, but a minority continue to decline, although the latter group is getting smaller every year. In addition, please also note that even if participants decline their HIV results, the Rakai Program still provides them with detailed HIV prevention education and counseling.) Enrollment of men who decline their HIV results is also congruent with Ugandan Ministry of Health Policy, which encourages but does not force individuals and study participants to receive their HIV results.
Enrollment of female partners is designed to answer important questions regarding potential effects of male circumcision on women. Should male circumcision reduce HIV and STD acquisition in women, this would represent an additional important public health benefit of the procedure and would add to the cost effectiveness of male circumcision programs. However, if the procedure is associated with increased HIV transmission (for example, due to increased transmission before a circumcision surgical would is fully healed), it is crucial that such a potential risk be identified rapidly within a trial, in order to prevent the risk within trials and in any potential future circumcision programs.
Following enrollment, men in the circumcision arm are followed post-operatively at weekly intervals until wound healing is fully certified, , at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. Men in the control arm are followed at 4-6 weeks and 6, 12 and 24 months. At baseline and follow up, men respond to a detailed sociodemographic, behavioral and health questionnaire, and provide biological samples (venous blood, urine, sub-preputial swabs [prior to circumcision] and for circumcised men, foreskins are collected at time of surgery.) Samples will allow assessment of multiple infections, including HIV, HSV-2, gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis.
Women partners are followed annually, through the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Following written informed consent, women are administered a detailed sociodemographic, behavioral and health status questionnaire, and provide venous blood and self-administered vaginal swabs at baseline and study follow up visits. The samples will allow assessment of multiple infections and conditions, including HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, HSV-2 and HPV. Women partners of HIV+ men receive additional visita at 6 and 18 months post enrollment.
Community members (men not in the trials, and women who are not partners of men in the trials) are followed annually through the Rakai Community Cohort Study.
Services offered by the Rakai Program to all study participants include HIV and STD prevention education (information on behavioral risk factors and on abstinence, monogamy, being faithful and condom use), free condoms, free HIV counseling and testing for individuals and couples, free STD treatment, access to Rakai Program clinics for general health care, access to Rakai clinics for free HIV antiretroviral (ARV) drug screening and services, prophylaxis for opportunistic infections and nevirapine services for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Please note: residents in the 50 villages where the circumcision trials are being conducted have access to Rakai clinics and ARV services whether or not they consent to be in Rakai studies, in order to avoid undue pressure to participate.
|Study Type ICMJE||Interventional|
|Study Phase||Phase 3|
|Study Design ICMJE||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Intervention ICMJE||Procedure: Male circumcision
|Study Arm (s)||
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Unknown status|
|Estimated Completion Date||September 2009|
|Primary Completion Date||Not Provided|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
MALES randomized to circumcision:
Please note: for participants under age 18, the study follows informed consent/assent procedures as required under US Federal Regulations. The latter are also consistent with Ugandan policy.
|Ages||15 Years to 49 Years (Child, Adult)|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers||Yes|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Listed Location Countries ICMJE||Uganda|
|Removed Location Countries|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT00124878|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||22006|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||Yes|
|Plan to Share Data||Not Provided|
|IPD Description||Not Provided|
|Responsible Party||Not Provided|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||Wawer, Maria J., M.D.|
|Information Provided By||Wawer, Maria J., M.D.|
|Verification Date||July 2005|
ICMJE Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP