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Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00021528
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 23, 2001
Last Update Posted : September 25, 2009
Information provided by:
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE July 20, 2001
First Posted Date  ICMJE July 23, 2001
Last Update Posted Date September 25, 2009
Study Start Date  ICMJE July 2001
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Change History Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00021528 on Archive Site
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Other Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D)
Official Title  ICMJE Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression
Brief Summary STAR*D focuses on non-psychotic major depressive disorder in adults who are seen in outpatient settings. The primary purpose of this research study is to determine which treatments work best if the first treatment with medication does not produce an acceptable response. Participants will first receive citalopram, an SSRI medication; if symptoms remain after 8-12 weeks of treatment, up to four other levels of treatment will be offered, including cognitive therapy and other medications. There are no placebo treatments. Some patients may require a combination of two or more treatments to obtain full benefit. Participation could last from 15 to 27 months and involve up to 30 clinic visits. Participants will be interviewed by telephone throughout the study about their symptoms, daily functioning, treatment side effects, use of the health care system, and satisfaction with treatment. There will be a one-year follow up for participants once their depression has been successfully treated
Detailed Description

The STAR*D project will enroll 4,000 outpatients (ages 18 -75) diagnosed with nonpsychotic Major Depressive Disorder. Participants will be initially treated (open label) with citalopram, the Level 1 treatment, for a minimum of 8 weeks. Patients who experience minimal benefit will be strongly encouraged to complete 12 weeks of treatment in order to maximize the chances of symptom remission (unless no benefit at all is seen after 8 weeks). All participants will also receive a brief depression educational program.

At each level change, participants will be asked to indicate the unacceptability of the potential treatment strategies (e.g, to augment or to switch medications). Participants will then be eligible for random assignment to one of the acceptable and medically safe treatment options.

Level 2: Participants who either did not have an adequate response to or could not tolerate citalopram are eligible for Level 2. The Level 2 treatment strategies are:

i) Medication and Psychotherapy Switch: switch to sertraline, venlafaxineXR, bupropionSR, or cognitive therapy (CT).

ii) Medication and Psychotherapy Augmentation: add to citalopram either a) buspirone, b) bupropionSR, or c) CT.

iii) Medication Only Switch or Medication Only Augmentation options are available for participants for whom CT is unacceptable.

iv)Psychotherapy Only Switch or Psychotherapy Only Augmentation options are available for participants for whom additional medication is unacceptable at this point in the study (participants must be willing to continue citalopram)

Level 2A: Participants without a satisfactory response to their Level 2 treatment are eligible for random assignment to additional treatment at Level 2A (if medically safe and acceptable). Level 2A is included so that all participants entering Level 3 have had an opportunity to respond to at least 2 medications. Level 2A consists of Medication Switch to one of two antidepressant medications (venlafaxineXR or bupropion SR).

Level 3: Participants without satisfactory response to Level 2 and,if appropriate Level 2A, are eligible for random assignment to one of the following treatments (if acceptable and medically safe):

i) Medication Switch to: a) mirtazapine or b) nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant.

ii) Medication Augmentation: Add (to current Level 2 or Level 2A medication) either: a) lithium or b) thyroid hormone (T3).

Level 4: Participants without an adequate response to Level 3 are eligible for random assignment to Level 4 treatment (if acceptable and medically safe). Level 4 includes two Medication Switch options: to tranylcypromine [a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)], or to mirtazapine plus venlafaxineXR.

After Level 4, participants without an adequate response will discuss other acceptable treatment options with their physician.

Once an adequate response is achieved at Levels 2, 2A, 3 or 4, participants are eligible to enter the 12-month follow-up, during which time they will remain on their current treatment(s) and will be asked about their symptoms and other relevant information monthly by telephone. ONLY PATIENTS BEING TREATED AT THE PARTICIPATING CLINICS ARE ELIGIBLE FOR THIS STUDY.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase Phase 4
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Depression
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: citalopram
  • Drug: BuproprionSR
  • Drug: buspirone
  • Drug: Lithium
  • Drug: mirtazapine
  • Drug: nortriptyline
  • Drug: sertraline
  • Drug: tranylcypromine
  • Drug: VenlafaxineXR
  • Behavioral: Cognitive Therapy
  • Drug: T3 (Triiodothyronine)
Study Arms Not Provided
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: June¬†23,¬†2005)
Original Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Study Completion Date September 2006
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE - Outpatients aged 18 to 75 years old with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (HAMD score 14 or greater)
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages 18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00021528
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE N01 MH90003
Has Data Monitoring Committee Not Provided
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement Not Provided
Responsible Party Not Provided
Study Sponsor  ICMJE National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Study Director: A. John Rush, MD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Department of Psychiatry
PRS Account National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Verification Date September 2006

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP