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Etanercept (Enbrel) to Treat Pain and Swelling After Third Molar Extraction

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006070
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 19, 2000
Last Update Posted : March 4, 2008
Information provided by:
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE July 18, 2000
First Posted Date  ICMJE July 19, 2000
Last Update Posted Date March 4, 2008
Study Start Date  ICMJE July 2000
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Etanercept (Enbrel) to Treat Pain and Swelling After Third Molar Extraction
Official Title  ICMJE Safety and Efficacy of a TNF Receptor Fusion Protein for Injury-Induced Inflammation and Sequelae
Brief Summary

This study will evaluate the effects of the anti-inflammatory drug etanercept (Enbrel) on relieving pain and swelling after oral surgery. The Food and Drug Administration has approved Enbrel for treating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, including pain.

Healthy volunteers 16 to 35 years of age who require third molar (wisdom teeth) extractions may be eligible for this study. Participants must not be allergic to aspirin or to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Candidates will be screened for eligibility with a medical history and oral examination, including X-rays if needed.

Participation in the study requires four clinic visits: two for surgery and two for follow-up:

Visit 1:

Patients will have ultrasound pictures taken to measure cheek size. One hour before surgery, they will receive a dose of either 25 milligrams (mg) of Enbrel; 15 mg of the standard pain medicine Toradol; or a placebo (salt-water) through an arm vein. A local injection of an anesthetic (lidocaine) will be given before surgery to numb the mouth, and a sedative (Versed) will be infused through a vein to induce sleepiness. When the anesthetic takes effect, a small piece of tissue will be removed from the inside of the cheek, and then the upper and lower molars on one side of the mouth will be extracted. After surgery, a small piece of tubing will be placed in the lower extraction site, from which samples will be collected to measure chemicals involved in pain and inflammation. Patients will stay in the clinic for 4 hours after surgery while the anesthetic wears off and will complete pain questionnaires during that time. If, an hour after surgery, patients have pain that is not relieved by the treatment given before surgery, they may receive acetaminophen (Tylenol) and codeine for pain. Another biopsy will be taken (under local anesthetic) from the inside of the cheek when pain occurs or at the end of the 4-hour observation period. The tubing then will be removed and the patient discharged with Tylenol and codeine for pain.

Visit 2:

Patients will return to the clinic in the morning 48 hours after the oral surgery for a 1- to 2-hour visit. They will fill out questionnaires, undergo ultrasound imaging of both cheeks and have another biopsy taken from the inside of the cheek on the operated side.

Visits 3 and 4:

Three weeks after the first surgery patients will schedule extraction of the two wisdom teeth on the other side of the mouth, and the procedures for visits 1 and 2 will be repeated.

Detailed Description The proposed investigation is a randomized, double-blind, placebo and positive-controlled within-subjects design clinical study to evaluate the role of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in acute inflammation using a specific TNF receptor antagonist, etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex Corporation, Seattle, WA). The goal of this study is to determine whether inhibition of TNF bioactivity can attenuate acute inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and adverse effects of etanercept, a recombinant TNF receptor fusion protein, will be evaluated using a model of tissue injury, the oral surgery model. Briefly, healthy volunteers referred for third molar extraction will undergo the surgical extraction of third molars with local anesthesia and conscious sedation. At the completion of the surgical procedure, a microdialysis probe will be placed under the mucogingival flap previously elevated for the surgical procedure and subjects will be observed for pain and swelling over the course of four hours following surgery. Tissue biopsies prior to and following surgery will be obtained from the buccal mucosa. Etanercept or control will be administered parenterally one hour prior to surgery. Tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators will be measured at time intervals postoperatively. Pain and swelling will be assessed postoperatively over the course of four hours and at 48 hours. Demonstration of amelioration of pain, swelling, and/or changes in levels of tissue mediators will be taken as evidence of an acute anti-inflammatory effect of etanercept. Since the fusion protein (hereafter, TNFR:fc) specifically binds TNF-alpha and prevents its interaction with cellular receptors, changes in the inflammatory cascade and clinical endpoints of inflammation may provide insight into role of TNF-alpha in the pathophysiology of acute inflammation and its clinical sequela.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Healthy
  • Inflammation
Intervention  ICMJE Drug: etanercept (Enbrel)
Study Arms  ICMJE Not Provided
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: June¬†23,¬†2005)
Original Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Study Completion Date  ICMJE May 2004
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE


Male or female volunteers referred for extraction of third molars willing to undergo two surgical appointments for the extraction of unilateral third molars.

Between the ages of 16 to 35 years (based upon eruption patterns and age-related complications associated with surgical extraction of third molars).

In good general health - ASA status 1 or 2 (healthy subjects based upon criteria for safe outpatient conscious sedation).

Willing to undergo observation period for four hours postoperatively.

Willing to return at 48 hours for measurement of pain, swelling, and tissue biopsy.

Willing to return for a total of four visits beyond the screening visit.


Pregnant or lactating females.

Current mental disorder or substance abuse.

Allergy to aspirin or NSAIDs.

Chronic use of medications confounding assessment of the inflammatory response or analgesia (antihistamines, NSAIDs, steroids, antidepressants).

Presence of chronic debilitating disease (such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease, etc).

Presence of symptomatic tooth suggesting infection or inflammation.

Unusual surgical difficulty encountered during the surgical procedure.

Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE Child, Adult, Older Adult
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00006070
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 000168
Has Data Monitoring Committee Not Provided
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Responsible Party Not Provided
Original Responsible Party Same as current
Current Study Sponsor  ICMJE National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Original Study Sponsor  ICMJE Same as current
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE Not Provided
PRS Account National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Verification Date May 2004

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP