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A Study of Nevirapine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission From Mothers to Their Babies

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: August 31, 2001
Last Update Posted: April 3, 2012
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
November 2, 1999
August 31, 2001
April 3, 2012
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Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00000869 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
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A Study of Nevirapine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission From Mothers to Their Babies
A Phase III Randomized, Blinded Study of Nevirapine for the Prevention of Maternal-Fetal Transmission in Pregnant HIV-Infected Women

The purpose of this study is to see if giving the anti-HIV drug nevirapine (NVP) to HIV-positive pregnant women and their babies can help reduce the chance that a mother will give HIV to her baby during delivery. This study will also test the safety of the drug and see how well it is tolerated by the mother and her baby.

Previous studies suggest that NVP is a promising medication for blocking HIV transmission from HIV-positive mothers to their babies.

Nevirapine has several properties that make it an attractive candidate for antiretroviral therapy to interrupt HIV-1 transmission in the intrapartum and early postpartum period. The pharmacokinetic profile suggested that nevirapine would be rapidly absorbed and transferred to the infant in utero when given during labor and delivery. In addition, nevirapine has been shown to penetrate cell-free virions and inactivate virion-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) in situ. This property would be potentially useful in inactivating cell-free virions in the genital tract as well as in breast milk. These characteristics of nevirapine suggest that treatment of an HIV-infected pregnant woman in labor with an oral dose of nevirapine may provide a prophylactic level of nevirapine in the infant during the time of exposure to virus in the birth canal and/or maternal blood. In addition, nevirapine may inactivate the virion-associated RT present in cell-free virions in the genital tract or breast milk.

Women are randomized to receive either NVP or the corresponding placebo in active labor. Women are randomized at any time after their 32nd week gestation [AS PER AMENDMENT 1/13/98: 28th week gestation] [AS PER AMENDMENT 2/23/00: 20th week gestation]. The randomization is stratified using two factors: (1) use of [AS PER AMENDMENT 2/23/00: current or anticipated] antiretroviral therapy during the current pregnancy (no therapy at all; monotherapy for any duration; multi-agent therapy for any duration), and (2) CD4 cell count at the time of randomization (less than 200 cells; 200 - 399 cells; 400 cells or greater). Mothers are followed on study for 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers are also encouraged to follow the regimen of zidovudine (ZDV) outlined in the Office of Public Health and Science (PHS) treatment guidelines for both themselves and their infants. Infants are administered either NVP or placebo between 48 and 72 hours of life. The infant's study drug is the same as the mother's randomized treatment assignment. Infants are dosed with the study drug according to their randomization group regardless of whether the mother received the study drug. Infants are followed for 4 to 6 weeks, and are tested for HIV at 4 to 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.

Phase 3
Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • HIV Infections
  • Pregnancy
Drug: Nevirapine
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*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
May 2001
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Inclusion Criteria

Women may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are HIV-positive.
  • Are at least 20 weeks pregnant. (This study has been changed. Women no longer have to be 28 weeks pregnant.)
  • Have consent from the child's father (if available).
  • Are at least 13 years old (consent of parent or guardian required if under 18).

Exclusion Criteria

Women will not be eligible for this study if they:

  • Have ever taken NNRTIs (nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors).
  • Are enrolled in another pregnancy treatment study.
  • Are allergic to benzodiazepines.
  • Have liver disease.
  • Plan to breast-feed.
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Puerto Rico,   United States
ACTG 316
11290 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES Registry Number )
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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
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Study Chair: Alejandro Dorenbaum
Study Chair: John Sullivan
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
March 2012

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP