Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen Trial (WAVE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00000555
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 28, 1999
Last Update Posted : July 12, 2016
Information provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)

October 27, 1999
October 28, 1999
July 12, 2016
August 1996
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Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00000555 on Archive Site
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Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen Trial (WAVE)
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To assess whether hormonal replacement therapy and/or antioxidant treatment would stabilize or inhibit progression, and induce regression of coronary plaques. The mechanisms by which these treatments modified atherosclerosis in women were also explored.


Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for over 500,000 deaths each year. Although the onset of coronary artery disease is delayed in women, it is the single most important cause of death in women over the entire life span. Indeed, because more women than men survive to old age, mortality due to coronary artery disease for all ages combined is as great in women as in men. Furthermore, once they present with clinical evidence of coronary artery disease, women have a prognosis as poor as, or even worse, than that for men. In part, this may be due to late recognition of coronary artery disease in women, less intensive treatment of women, or a more adverse risk profile in women who develop coronary artery disease. The report of a recent Working Group on Angiographic Trials of Atherosclerosis Prevention notes that, compared to males, females who develop coronary artery disease, have various different characteristics which may affect the vascular response to lipid-altering interventions. These differences led the report to question whether the mechanisms and clinical benefits of lipid-altering agents may be different in men and women. It further noted that angiographic trials conducted to date have been based primarily upon the cholesterol-lowering treatments of diet or drugs and suggested that other approaches based upon the lipid hypothesis could profitably be tested and should be given the highest priority at this time; specifically recommended were trials of hormone replacement and antioxidant therapy in women.


Subjects were randomized into a 2 x 2 factorial trial of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant therapy. Women were randomized into four treatment groups: both active hormone replacement and antioxidant; active hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant placebo; active antioxidant therapy and hormone replacement placebo; double placebo plus usual care. Hormone replacement therapy consisted of estrogen plus a progestin (PremPro) for all gynecologically intact women, and unopposed estrogen (Premarin) for women with hysterectomies. Antioxidants consisted of a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C. Angiographic change was a primary endpoint of this trial. The study was double-blind to the extent permitted by the interventions; however, it was fully-blinded with respect to outcome variables. Recruitment ended in August 1999. The mean duration of follow-up was approximately three years.

The NHLBI awarded R01HL68397 in April 2001 as an ancillary study to WAVE. The study entitled "Modifying Oxidative Damage in WAVE" has its on site on this database.

The study completion date listed in this record was obtained from the "End Date" entered in the Protocol Registration and Results System (PRS) record.

Phase 3
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Prevention
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Coronary Arteriosclerosis
  • Coronary Disease
  • Heart Diseases
  • Myocardial Ischemia
  • Postmenopause
  • Drug: estrogen replacement therapy
  • Drug: estrogens, conjugated
  • Drug: progesterone
  • Drug: hormone replacement therapy
  • Drug: supplementation, food
  • Drug: ascorbic acid
  • Drug: vitamin e
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*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
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May 2003
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Postmenopausal women, up to age 86, with angiographically documented coronary artery disease of at least 15 percent, but no more than 75 percent occlusion.
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
38 Years to 86 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
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N01HV68165 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
N01HV68166 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
N01HV68167 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
N01HV68168 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
N01HV68169 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
N01HV68170 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
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Investigator: Joel Verter George Washington University
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
August 2005

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP