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Second-line Therapies for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Moderate Cardiovascular Disease Risk

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05214573
Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : January 28, 2022
Last Update Posted : January 28, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Rozalina G. McCoy, Mayo Clinic

Brief Summary:

We will use the target trial framework for causal inference to conduct this observational retrospective cohort study that uses claims data of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) included in the de-identified datasets of OptumLabs Data Warehouse (OLDW) and Medicare fee-for-service.

In Aim 1, we will emulate a target trial comparing the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), and sulfonylureas (SU) in adults with T2D at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with regard to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), expanded MACE, microvascular complications, severe hypoglycemia, and other adverse events.

In Aim 2, we will compare these four drug classes in the same population of adults with T2D included in OLDW and Medicare fee-for-service data with respect to a set of composite outcomes identified by a group of patients with T2D as being most important to them. Specifically, in Aim 2A, we will prospectively elicit patient preferences toward various treatment outcomes (e.g., hospitalization, kidney disease) using a participatory ranking exercise, then use these rankings to generate individually weighted composite outcomes. Then, in Aim 2B, we will estimate patient-centered treatment effects of four different second-line T2D medications that reflect the patient's value for each outcome.

In Aim 3, we will compare different medications within each of the four therapeutic classes with respect to MACE.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Type 2 Diabetes Cardiac Disease Drug: Glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist Drug: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor Drug: Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor Drug: Sulfonylurea

Detailed Description:

Study Design: We will use the target trial framework for causal inference to conduct this observational cohort study.

Comparators: Aims 1-2 compare the GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, DPP-4i, and SU classes, while Aim 3 compares the individual drugs within each therapeutic class.

Population: Using data from OptumLabs Data Warehouse linked to 100% Medicare FFS claims, we will identify adults (≥21 years) with T2D at moderate risk for CVD who started a GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, DPP-4i, or SU

Outcomes: In AIMs 1 and 3, the primary outcome will be time to MACE (non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, mortality). Secondary outcomes will include times to expanded MACE (MACE, HF hospitalizations, revascularization procedures) and its components, lower extremity complications, severe hypoglycemia, microvascular complications, and other significant adverse events. In AIM 2A, we will elicit patient preferences toward various treatment outcomes using a participatory ranking exercise, use these rankings to generate individually weighted composite outcomes, and then estimate patient-centered treatment effects of GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, DPP4i, and SU reflecting the patient values for each of the outcomes.

Timeframe: January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2019.

Methods: Inverse probability weighting will be used to emulate baseline randomization for pairwise comparisons between the drug classes (AIMs 1-2) and individual drugs within each class (AIM 3). Causal cumulative incidence rates will be estimated in the weighted sample using the targeted maximum likelihood estimator adjusting for time-dependent confounding and loss-to-follow-up.

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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 500000 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Retrospective
Official Title: Second-line Therapies for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Moderate Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Actual Study Start Date : December 1, 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date : August 31, 2024
Estimated Study Completion Date : August 31, 2025

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Aims 1, 2B, and 3 Groups
De-identified administrative claims with linked laboratory results, electronic health record (EHR), and mortality data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse (OLDW) and Medicare fee-for-service data (Medicare parts A, B, D) will be utilized to identify adults (≥21 years) with T2D (established using validated Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set criteria) who first filled any study drug GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, DPP-4i, or SU between 1/1/2014-12/31/2020.
Drug: Glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist
Patients in the data who filled a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist medication

Drug: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor
Patients in the data who filled a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor

Drug: Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor
Patients in the data who filled a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor

Drug: Sulfonylurea
Patients in the data who filled a sulfonylurea

Aim 2A Group
Adults with Type 2 diabetes treated with one or more of the study medications (GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, DPP-4i, or SU) and not treated with insulin who receive medical care at Mayo Clinic Rochester, Mayo Clinic Health System in Minnesota or Wisconsin, or Emory University/Grady Hospital.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. 3-point MACE [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of 3-point MACE events defined as non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and mortality


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Expanded MACE and its components [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of 3-point MACE (non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, mortality) plus heart failure hospitalization and revascularization procedure events

  2. Non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of non-fatal myocardial infarctions

  3. Non-fatal stroke events [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of non-fatal stroke events

  4. All-cause moratality [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of deaths

  5. Severe hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of emergency department visits or hospitalization for hypoglycemia

  6. Incident end-stage kidney disease [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of initiation of dialysis or new diagnosis of stage 5 or end-stage kidney disease

  7. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy or macular edema [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of treatments for diabetic retinopathy or macular edema

  8. Lower extremity complications [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of foot and/or leg amputation, osteomyelitis, ulcer, Charcot arthropathy

  9. All-cause hospitalization [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of hospitalizations

  10. Severe genitourinary tract infection [ Time Frame: 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2021 ]
    Number of severe genitourinary tract infection



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population

Aims 1, 2B, 3: De-identified data sets using laboratory results, electronic health record and mortality data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse (OLDW) and Medicare fee-for-service data.

Aim 2A: Adults with Type 2 diabetes receiving care from primary care and endocrinology practices in Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, Mayo Clinic Health System in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and Emory University/Grady Hospital in Atlanta, GA.

Criteria

Inclusion Criteria for all Aims

  • ≥ 21 years old.
  • Diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes.
  • Use of ≥ study drug (GLP-1RA, SGLT2i, DPP-4i, SU).

Exclusion Criteria for Aims 1, 2B, 3

  • Fill for any study drug during the baseline period or simultaneous (within 30 days) start of ≥2 study drugs
  • Insulin use
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • High risk of CVD
  • Pregnancy
  • Metastatic cancer

Exclusion Criteria for Aim 2A

  • Insulin use.
  • Cognitive impairment.
  • Terminal or advanced illness.
  • Non-English speaking.
  • Residency in a long-term care setting.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT05214573


Locations
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United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic Rochester
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mayo Clinic
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Rozalina McCoy, MD, MS Mayo Clinic
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Rozalina G. McCoy, Principal Investigator, Mayo Clinic
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05214573    
Other Study ID Numbers: 21-007688
First Posted: January 28, 2022    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 28, 2022
Last Verified: January 2022

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Rozalina G. McCoy, Mayo Clinic:
Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Cardiovascular disease
Comparative effectiveness
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
Glucagon
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Gastrointestinal Agents
Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Incretins
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Hypoglycemic Agents