AVAJAK: Apixaban/Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Thrombo-embolic Complications in JAK2V617F-positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (AVAJAK)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05198960|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : January 20, 2022
Last Update Posted : July 14, 2022
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Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are frequent and chronic myeloid malignancies including Polycythemia Vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) and Prefibrotic myelofibrosis (PreMF). These MPNs are caused by the acquisition of mutations affecting activation/proliferation pathways in hematopoietic stem cells. The principal mutations are JAK2V617F, calreticulin (CALR exon 9) and MPL W515. ET or MFP/PreMF patients who do not carry one of these three mutations are declared as triple-negative (3NEG) cases even if they are real MPN cases.
These diseases are at high risk of thrombo-embolic complications and with high morbidity/mortality. This risk varies from 4 to 30% depending on MPN subtype and mutational status.
In terms of therapy, all patients with MPNs should also take daily low-dose aspirin (LDA) as first antithrombotic drug, which is particularly efficient to reduce arterial but not venous events.
Despite the association of a cytoreductive drug and LDA, thromboses still occur in 5-8% patients/year.
All these situations have been explored in biological or clinical assays. All of them could increase the bleeding risk. We should look at different ways to reduce the thrombotic incidence: Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC)? In the general population, in medical or surgical contexts, DOACs have demonstrated their efficiency to prevent or cure most of the venous or arterial thrombotic events.
At the present time, DOAC can be used in cancer populations according to International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) recommendations, except in patients with cancer at high bleeding risk (gastro-intestinal or genito-urinary cancers). Unfortunately, in trials evaluating DOAC in cancer patients, most patients have solid rather than hematologic cancers (generally less than 10% of the patients, mostly lymphoma or myeloma).
In cancer patients, DOAC are also highly efficient to reduce the incidence of thrombosis (-30 to 60%), but patients are exposed to a higher hemorrhagic risk, especially in digestive cancer patients.
In the cancer population, pathophysiology of both thrombotic and hemorrhagic events may be quite different between solid cancers and MPN. If MPN patients are also considered to be cancer patients in many countries, the pathophysiology of thrombosis is quite specific (hyperviscosity, platelet abnormalities, clonality, specific cytokines…) and they are exposed to a lower risk of digestive hemorrhages. It is thus difficult to extend findings from the "general cancer population" to MPN patients.
Unfortunately, only scarce, retrospective data regarding the use of DOAC in MPNs are available data.
We were the first to publish a "real-life" study about the use, the impact, and the risks in this population. In this local retrospective study, 25 patients with MPN were treated with DOAC for a median time of 2.1 years. We observed only one thrombosis (4%) and three major hemorrhages (12%, after trauma or unprepared surgery). Furthermore, we have compared the benefit/risk balance compared to patients treated with LDA without difference.
With the increasing evidences of efficacy and tolerance of DOAC in large cohorts of patients including cancer patients, with their proven efficacy on prevention of both arterial and venous thrombotic events and because of the absence of prospective trial using these drugs in MPN patients, we propose to study their potential benefit as primary thrombotic prevention in MPN.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Polycythemia Vera Essential Thrombocythemia Prefibrotic/Early Primary Myelofibrosis JAK2 V617F High-risk Patients||Drug: Direct Oral Anticoagulants Drug: Low-dose aspirin||Phase 3|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||1340 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||
AVAJAK is an academic multicenter phase 3 prospective, randomized, and open label trial.
> Randomization of the patients: Patients corresponding to inclusion criteria will be randomized based on a 1:1 distribution.
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||AVAJAK: Apixaban/Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Thrombo-embolic Complications in JAK2V617F-positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasms|
|Estimated Study Start Date :||July 2022|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||July 2027|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||July 2027|
Experimental: Experimental group
Patients randomized to receive Direct Oral Anticoagulants, at the choice of the investigator Apixaban 2.5 mg both in day or Rivaroxaban 10 mg one per day, at the choice of the investigator
Drug: Direct Oral Anticoagulants
Patients randomized to receive DOAC, at the choice of the investigator: Apixaban 2.5 mg both in day or Rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily.
Active Comparator: Control group
Patients randomized to receive Low-Dose Aspirin Aspirin 100 mg one per day
Drug: Low-dose aspirin
Patients allocated to receive LDA: Aspirin 100 mg OD once daily.
- Occurrence of arterial or venous thrombo-embolic events [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb and type of thrombotic events during the FU
- Occurrence of major and clinically relevant non-major bleedings as defined by International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb and type of new hemorrhagic events
- Occurrence of arterial thromboembolic [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb and type of new arterial events
- Occurrence of venous thromboembolic [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb and type of new venous events
- Occurrence of thromboembolic and bleeding events according to the cytoreductive associated drugs [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb and type of new thromboembolic and hemorrhage events
- Occurrence of serious adverse events others than thromboses and hemorrhages [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb, type and grade of adverse events observed
- Overall survival and event-free survival [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Time to last news and time to first event
- Therapeutic adherence [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Therapeutic adherence by Girerd auto-questionnaire
- Occurrence of atrial fibrillation episode [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Nb and timing of atrial fibrillation event
- Evaluation of Quality of life under antithrombotic drugs [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Evaluation of QoL by the use of MPN-SAF Quality of life
- Evaluation of costs and incremental cost utility ratio of low-dose DOAC compared to low-dose aspirin [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Evaluation of benefits/costs under antithrombotic drugs
- Evaluation of Quality of life under antithrombotic drugs [ Time Frame: 24 months ]Evaluation of QoL by the use of EQ-5D-5L Quality of life
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Patients with diagnosis of PV or ET or PreMF according to WHO or BSCH criteria (bone marrow biopsy not compulsory).
- Patients with JAK2V617F mutation (threshold allele burden > 1%).
Patients considered as "high-risk" patients:
- based on age (> 60-year-old)
- based on thrombotic history (compatible with antithrombotic randomization) but aged ≥ 18-year-old.
- Length of time from MPN diagnostic to inclusion will not exceed 12 months.
- Contra-indication to aspirin or DOAC due to allergic situation or recent history of major bleeding.
- Formal indication of treatment with aspirin or DOAC (thus precluding randomization).
- Inability to give informed consent.
- Patients under curatorship/guardianship
- Concomitant use of a strong inhibitor or inducer of CYP3A4 (like ruxolitinib).
- Chronic liver disease or chronic hepatitis.
- Renal insufficiency with creatinine <30 ml/mn on Cockcroft and Gault Formula
- Patient considered at high-risk of bleeding: patients with current or recent major or clinical relevant non major bleeding gastrointestinal or cerebral bleedings
- Planned pregnancy within 24 months
- No appropriate contraception (estrogen contraception or no contraception) in women of childbearing age or breastfeeding woman
- PS>2 or life expectancy <12 months.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT05198960
|Contact: Jean-Christophe IANOTTO, Prfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Responsible Party:||University Hospital, Brest|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||January 20, 2022 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||July 14, 2022|
|Last Verified:||July 2022|
|Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:|
|Plan to Share IPD:||Yes|
|Plan Description:||All collected data that underlie results in a publication|
|Time Frame:||Data will be available beginning five years and ending fifteen years following the final study report completion.|
|Access Criteria:||Data access requests will be reviewed by the internal committee of Brest UH. Requestors will be required to sign and complete a data access agreement.|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
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