Perioperative Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib in Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) (PRIMER-1)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05185739|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : January 11, 2022
Last Update Posted : September 28, 2022
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Hepatocellular Carcinoma||Drug: Pembrolizumab Drug: Lenvatinib Drug: Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib||Phase 2|
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), or Liver cancer, is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer-related death in the West. The only potentially curative options are transplantation, surgical resection and ablation. Both surgical resection and ablation are associated with a high rate of recurrence and 70% of resected patients relapse within 5 years. To date, no standard adjuvant therapies have been approved. Recent studies provide evidence that immunotherapy may address a significant unmet need in the management of HCC.
Furthermore, there is also a rationale for pre-operative therapy which has been shown to be superior to a postoperative treatment approach as supported by pre-clinical studies. The feasibility and outcomes of this approach have recently been reported in the setting of lung cancer. Lenvatinib, an immunotherapy drug, has been approved as a first treatment option in HCC. Pembrolizumab, another immunotherapy treatment has been evaluated as first treatment option in HCC in two clinical trials. The combination of these two drugs has been explored in HCC in early phase trials.
The aim is to compare the efficacy of pembrolizumab (a type of immunotherapy designed to 're-awaken' the immune system) combined with lenvatinib (an anti-cancer drug that is a multiple kinase inhibitor) with that of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib alone in patients with resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Treatment lasts for up to 18 months. Depending on when patients are recruited, patients will be followed up for a minimum of 1 year and maximum of 3 years, following the end of their post-surgery treatment. It is expected that it will take 24 months to recruit all the patients.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||60 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||This is a randomised 3-arm phase II clinical trial in patients with resectable HCC. Sixty patients will be randomized 1:1:1 to pembrolizumab, lenvatinib or the combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib.|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||PRIMER-1 Perioperative Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib in Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||August 25, 2022|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||July 2026|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||July 2026|
|Active Comparator: Pembrolizumab||
Pre-operative Pembrolizumab (200mg IV every 3 weeks) for 2 cycles
|Active Comparator: Lenvatinib.||
Pre-operative Lenvatinib (8 or 12mg PO once daily according to bodyweight <60gk≥) for 6 weeks
|Experimental: Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib.||
Drug: Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib
Pre-operative combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib at the standard doses and duration as per cohort 1 and 2
- Major pathological response rate, defined as the proportion of patients with less than 10% viable tumour at resection. [ Time Frame: At 4 months ]The primary aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib result in a higher rate of major pathological response than either drug used as a single-agent in patients with resectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Percentage of viable tumour cells at resection [ Time Frame: At 4 months ]The primary aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the combination of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib result in a higher rate of major pathological response than either drug used as a single-agent in patients with resectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Radiological response rate [ Time Frame: Evaluated pre-surgery (at 2 months) ]The hypothesis is that the radiological response rate of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib in combination is greater than that of pembrolizumab and lenvatinib as single agents. Measured by RECIST 1.1 and mRECIST performed pre-operatively and compared with pre-treatment baseline imaging)
- Relapse free survival at 12 months from surgery [ Time Frame: 12 months from surgery ]Relapse free survival at 12 months from surgery
- Proportion of patients with surgery delayed by more than 4 weeks from the planned surgery date [ Time Frame: Evaluated by time to surgery (at 3 months) ]Defined as the proportion of patients with surgery delayed by more than 4 weeks from the planned surgery date due to IMP-related adverse events (AEs) or serious adverse events (SAEs))
- 30-day post-operative surgical complication rate [ Time Frame: Evaluated 30 days post surgery ]based on the Clavien-Dindo classification
- Completion of protocol-defined therapy [ Time Frame: 6 weeks pre-operative ]measured by the proprtion of patients mpleting protocol defined study-drug intervention.
- Completion of protocol-defined therapy [ Time Frame: 12 months post-operative ]measured by the proprtion of patients mpleting protocol defined study-drug intervention.
- Determine the toxicity of pre-operative therapy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) V5. [ Time Frame: Evaluated by monthly follow-up until patient relapse/ maximum of 3 years, following the end of their post-surgery treatment. ]Incidence and of adverse events (AEs) reported. Events will be classified according to CTCAE V5.0
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Have a diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) confirmed by radiology, histology, or cytology (fibrolamellar and mixed hepatocellular/cholangiocarcinoma subtypes are not eligible). Radiological confirmation of diagnosis is provided by the study site and defined by the presence of a liver mass of at least 1 cm and exhibiting arterial hypervascularity with washout in the portal venous phase seen in a tri-phasic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- At least one measurable disease based on RECIST 1.1.
Low risk of surgical morbidity and mortality from liver surgery as defined by the following criteria:
- Single tumour
- No requirement for vascular resection
- Expected residual liver volume 40%
- Minor (up to 3 segments) or major resection (up to 5 segments)
If non-cirrhotic based on history, imaging, liver function +/- uninvolved liver biopsy):
• Single tumour any size
- Single tumour ≤ 5cm
Major resection (up to 5 segments) only with good liver function as defined locally by:
- Normal Bilirubin and
- No varices on pre-operative computerised tomography (CT)
- Wedge pressure < 10mmHg or
- Biopsy of uninvolved liver showing mild cirrhosis (Ashak grading)
- Child-Pugh A liver disease
- International normalised ratio (INR) ≤1.4
- ECOG Performance status 0 or 1
Adequate haematological function as defined by:
- Haemoglobin (Hb) > 90g/l
- Neutrophil Count > 1.5 x 109/l
- Platelets > 75 x 109/l
- Adequate renal function with GFR >40ml/min using a validated creatinine clearance calculation (e.g. Cockcroft-Gault or Wright formula)
Adequate liver function as defined by:
- Aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) < 5.0 x ULN
- Albumin >32g/l
- Amylase and lipase ≤ 1.5 x ULN
- Patients with past or ongoing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will be eligible for the study. The treated patients must have completed their treatment at least 1 month prior to starting
Patients with controlled hepatitis B will be eligible as long as they meet the following criteria:
- Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) must be given for at least 4 weeks and HBV viral load must be less than 500 IU/mL prior to first dose of study drug. Patients on active HBV therapy with viral loads under 500 IU/mL should stay on the same therapy throughout study treatment.
- Patients who are positive for anti-hepatitis B core antibody (HBc), negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and negative or positive for anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs), and who have an HBV viral load under 500 IU/mL, do not require HBV anti-viral prophylaxis
- 18 years of age or over
- Predicted life expectancy of > 3 months
- Patients must have given written informed consent
- Patients must have the ability to swallow oral medication
- Has received any systemic chemotherapy, including anti-VEGF therapy, or any systemic investigational anticancer agents for advanced/unresectable HCC.
- Has received local therapy including trans arterial embolic, chemo- or radiotherapy, external beam radiotherapy or ablative therapy to the measurable lesion to be resected.
- Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti PD-L2 agent or with an agent directed to another stimulatory or co-inhibitory T-cell receptor (e.g., CTLA-4, OX-40, or CD137).
- Oesophageal or gastric variceal bleeding within the last 6 months.
- Has received a live vaccine within 30 days prior to registration (seasonal flu vaccines that do not contain live virus are permitted). Administration of killed vaccines is allowed.
Active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment (i.e., with use of disease-modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs) in past 2 years except
- Autoimmune-related hyperthyroidism
- Autoimmune-related hypothyroidism who are in remission or on a stable dose of thyroid-replacement hormone replacement therapy (e.g., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency) is not considered a form of systemic treatment and is allowed.
- Has a history of (non-infectious) pneumonitis/interstitial lung disease that required steroids or has current pneumonitis/interstitial lung disease.
- A diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroid therapy (>10mg daily prednisolone equivalent) or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to treatment.
- Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or has required active treatment within the past 3 years. Note: Patients with basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or carcinoma in situ (e.g., breast carcinoma, cervical cancer in situ) that have undergone potentially curative therapy are not excluded.
- Has clinically apparent ascites on physical examination that is not controlled with medication. Note: ascites detectable on imaging studies only are allowed.
- Uncontrolled blood pressure (Systolic BP)>150 mmHg or diastolic BP >90 mmHg) in spite of an optimised regimen of anti-hypertensive medication.
- Has had clinically diagnosed hepatic encephalopathy in the last 6 months. Patients on rifaximin or lactulose to control their hepatic encephalopathy are not allowed.
- Has medical contraindications that preclude all forms of contrast enhanced imaging (tri-phasic CT or MRI).
- Gastrointestinal malabsorption, gastrointestinal anastomosis, or any other condition that might affect the absorption of lenvatinib.
- Has a pre-existing Grade ≥3 gastrointestinal or non-gastrointestinal fistula.
- Clinically significant haemoptysis from any source or tumour bleeding within 2 weeks prior to start of treatment.
- Electrolyte abnormalities that have not been corrected.
- Significant cardiovascular impairment within 12 months of start of treatment such as history of congestive heart failure greater than New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II, unstable angina, myocardial infarction or stroke within 6 months of start of treatment, or cardiac arrhythmia requiring medical treatment at screening.
- Prolongation of QTc interval to > 480 ms.
- Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below the institutional normal range as determined by multigated acquisition scan (MUGA) or echocardiogram (ECHO).
- Patients who are at risk for severe haemorrhage, bleeding or thrombotic disorders, or are receiving factor X inhibitors or anticoagulants that require therapeutic INR monitoring e.g. warfarin or similar agents. The degree of tumour invasion/infiltration of major blood vessels should be considered because of the potential risk of severe haemorrhage associated with tumour shrinkage/necrosis following lenvatinib therapy.
- Patients having > 1+ proteinuria on urine dipstick testing unless a 24-hour urine collection for quantitative assessment indicates that the urine protein is <1 g/24 hours.
- Patients who have not recovered adequately from any toxicity from other anti- cancer treatment regimens and/or complications from major surgery prior to starting therapy.
- Has had major surgery to the liver prior to start of treatment. Note: If patient received any major surgery, they must have recovered adequately from the toxicity and/or complications from the intervention prior to starting study treatment.
- Has had a minor surgery (i.e., simple excision) within 7 days prior to start of treatment (Cycle 1 Day 1).
- Has a serious non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.
- History of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
- Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy, with the exception of HBV, HCV.
- Has severe hypersensitivity (≥Grade 3) to pembrolizumab or lenvatinib and/or any of their excipients.
- Has dual active HBV infection (HBsAg (+) and /or detectable HBV DNA) and HCV infection (anti-HCV Ab (+) and detectable HCV RNA) at study entry.
- Has dual active HBV infection and hepatitis D virus (HDV) at the study entry.
- Has a known history of active tuberculosis (Bacillus tuberculosis).
- Has a known psychiatric or substance abuse disorder that would interfere with the patient's ability to cooperate with the requirements of the study.
- Is currently participating in or has participated in a study of an investigational agent or has used an investigational device within 4 weeks prior to the first dose of study intervention. Note: Patients who have entered the follow-up phase of an investigational study may participate as long as it has been 4 weeks after the last dose of the previous investigational agent.
- Has had an allogenic tissue/solid organ transplant.
- Women who are pregnant or breast feeding.
- Must be willing to use effective contraception during study and for 120 days after the last dose.
- Has a history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality that might confound the results of the study, interfere with the subject's participation for the full duration of the study, or is not in the best interest of the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating investigator.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT05185739
|Contact: Michelle Hung||+44 20 7679 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Marain Duggan||+44 20 7679 email@example.com|
|Queen Elizabeth Hospital||Not yet recruiting|
|Birmingham, United Kingdom|
|Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust||Not yet recruiting|
|Cambridge, United Kingdom|
|Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre||Not yet recruiting|
|Glasgow, United Kingdom|
|St James's Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust||Not yet recruiting|
|Leeds, United Kingdom|
|Clatterbridge Cancer Centre||Not yet recruiting|
|Liverpool, United Kingdom|
|King's College Hospital||Not yet recruiting|
|London, United Kingdom|
|Royal Free Hospital||Recruiting|
|London, United Kingdom|
|The Christie NHS Foundation Trust||Not yet recruiting|
|Manchester, United Kingdom|
|Northern Institute of Cancer Research||Not yet recruiting|
|Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom|
|Principal Investigator:||Tim Meyer, BSc MBBS PhD FRCP||University College, London|
|Responsible Party:||University College, London|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||January 11, 2022 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||September 28, 2022|
|Last Verified:||April 2022|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action