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Investigation of Metformin for the Prevention of Progression of Precursor Multiple Myeloma

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04850846
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : April 20, 2021
Last Update Posted : October 4, 2022
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Omar Nadeem, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Brief Summary:

The purpose of this research is to understand whether the drug metformin could be used in the future to help prevent patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) from developing multiple myeloma.

The names of the study drug involved in this study is:

  • Metformin, extended release
  • Placebo ( a pill that has no active ingredients)

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Smoldering Multiple Myeloma Drug: Metformin XR Other: Placebo Phase 2

Detailed Description:

This is a Phase 2, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in patients with higher-risk monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and low-risk smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) to test the efficacy of metformin in reducing clinical indicators of disease progression in MGUS and SMM patients.

Metformin is considered "investigational", which means it has not been approved for the study of cancer prevention by the United States Food and Drug Administration. It has been approved for other uses including for blood sugar control in some people with Type II diabetes.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which is an important part of the immune system. Patients with active multiple myeloma generally require treatment. There are currently no approved therapies for MGUS and SMM patients.

Metformin is a medication that is commonly used in the treatment of diabetes. Metformin works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, decreasing glucose absorption, and improving insulin sensitivity. This study is interested in studying this medication because several recent studies indicate that the drug may help prevent progression in patients with MGUS or SMM. This study is looking to learn more about whether metformin will benefit patients with MGUS or SMM who may not have diabetes.

The research study procedures include screening for eligibility and study treatment including evaluations and follow up visits.

After enrollment participants will be randomized assigned to receive either the Placebo or Metformin pills and to take them for 6 months depending on participant tolerance to the drug.

Participants will have the option to learn their treatment assignment after primary (6-month) outcome assessments are complete, and individuals randomized to metformin will have the opportunity to continue to take metformin for an additional 6-months to allow for the observation of potentially longer-term treatment response. Participants who choose to be unblinded and are taking placebo will discontinue study medication.

It is expected that about 80 people will take part in this research study.

The National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health is supporting this trial.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 80 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Study of Metformin for the Prevention of Progression of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma
Actual Study Start Date : April 27, 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 31, 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 31, 2024

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Metformin

Randomly assigned participants receive a stepped dose escalation until target daily dose of 1500mg Metformin XR is reached (3 x 500mg pills/day). The intervention duration will last an additional 6 months.

Metformin Extension:

Participants will have the option of unblinding at the end of their 6months treatment and those who were randomly assigned to the metformin experimental arm can continue taking metformin if they opt in. The extended intervention duration will last an additional 6 months. (1500mg Metformin XR or highest tolerated dose )

Drug: Metformin XR
Orally by mouth
Other Name: Glucophage XR

Experimental: Placebo
Randomly assigned participants receive a stepped dose escalation until target daily dose of 3 pills/day is reached. The intervention duration will last 6 months.
Other: Placebo
Orally by mouth

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. (M-)protein concentrations/light chains change [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
    Assessed by using the serum-protein electrophoresis and serum-free light chain assays

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. (M-)protein concentrations/light chains change by mass spectrometry [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  2. Hemoglobin concentrations change [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  3. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations change [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  4. Molecular evolution of CD138+ cells [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  5. Molecular evolution of immune cells (CD138- or CD45+) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  6. Changes in plasma metabolites measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  7. Changes in PROMIS Global Health Summary Score v1.2 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6-months ]
  8. Number of participants willing to continue to take metformin beyond 6 month primary assessment period [ Time Frame: Baseline- 12 months ]
  9. Changes in response for those who choose to take metformin for up to 1 year per IMWG response criteria [ Time Frame: Baseline- 12 months ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

-Diagnosed with higher-risk MGUS or low-risk SMM defined below:

--Higher-Risk MGUS: bone marrow plasma cell concentration <10%# AND either serum M-protein level ≥1.5 g/dL to <3 g/dL or abnormal free light-chain (FLC) ratio (<0.26 or>1.65) or IgA MGUS.

Note: individuals with an abnormal FLC ratio that are classified as light-chain only are eligible. Light-chain only patients are defined as complete loss of immunoglobulin heavy-chain, accompanied by abnormal FLC ratio with an increased level of the appropriate involved light-chain (increased kappa FLC in patient with ratio >1.65, and increased lambda FLC in patients with ratio <0.26).

  • Low-Risk Smoldering Myeloma: bone marrow plasma cells ≥10%# with the absence of additional high-risk features, which are further defined in the exclusion criteria

    #A new bone marrow biopsy is preferred for plasma cell determination at screening; however, determination of eligibility can be made from most recent bone marrow biopsy performed as long as it was within 2 years of enrollment.

    • Absence of evidence of CRAB criteria* or new criteria of active MM or active WM which including the following (note if one or more criteria has not been evaluated (e.g., no MRI), the criteria for active MM or WM for that feature is considered unmet):
  • Increased calcium levels (corrected serum calcium >0.25 mmol/dL above the upper limit of normal or >.275 mmol/dL) related to MM
  • Renal insufficiency (attributable to MM)
  • Anemia (Hb 2g/dL below the lower limit of normal or <10g/dL) related to MM
  • Bone lesions (lytic lesions or generalized osteoporosis with compression fractures)
  • Bone marrow plasma cells ≥60%
  • Serum involved/uninvolved FLC ratio ≥100, provided the absolute level of the involved free light chain is at least 100 mg/L and repeated twice (light chain smoldering myeloma as described in section 2.4 is not an exclusion criteria).
  • MRI with two or more focal lesion that is at least 5 mm or greater in size

    *Participants with CRAB criteria that are attributable to conditions other than the disease under study may be eligible

    • At least 18 years of age.
    • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2.
    • The following laboratory values obtained prior to the first dose of study drug/placebo:
  • AST and ALT < 1.5 x institutional ULN
  • Serum bilirubin < institutional ULN (in patients with Gilbert's Disease, direct bilirubin < institutional ULN)
  • Calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 45 mL/min

    • Estimation of renal function will be assessed using the CrCl calculated based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula:
    • CrCl (mL/min) = (140-age) (weight [kg]/72 (serum creatinine [mg/dL]; for females the formula is multiplied by 0.85
  • Random glucose < 160 mg/dL or fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL (other values require workup to rule out undiagnosed diabetes that may require treatment)

    • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
    • For participants who wish to enroll in the open label extended treatment (crossover arm), participants can be unblinded and learn of their drug group AFTER completing primary endpoint collection. Patient must be randomized to metformin in order to continue taking metformin for 6 additional months.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of high-risk smoldering myeloma, as defined by per IMWG/Mayo 2018 "20-2-20" Criteria (at least 2 of the following)

    • Bone marrow plasmacytosis ≥20%
    • ≥2g/dl M protein
    • ≥20 involved: uninvolved serum free light chain ratio
  • Diagnosed or treated for another malignancy within the study period.
  • Currently on medications for diabetes treatment

    • Patients with hyperglycemia (random glucose < 160 mg/dL or fasting glucose < 126 mg/dl) but who are not on any drug treatment are eligible
  • Participants who are receiving any other investigational agents.
  • Women who are pregnant or who are unable or unwilling to use contraception during the study period are excluded from this study because it is a class B agent which is known to cross the placenta rapidly and is unbound in serum.
  • Any condition associated with increased risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (prior renal failure or liver failure, history of acidosis of any type) or habitual intake of 3 or more alcoholic beverages per day.
  • Known intolerance to metformin
  • Known malabsorption syndrome or diagnosis with a medical condition that may alter gastrointestinal absorption of medications including but not limited to inflammatory bowel disease impacting the small intestine or recent history of bariatric surgery.
  • Any other condition that, in the investigator's judgment, would contraindicate the use of metformin or otherwise interfere with participation in the trial

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04850846

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Contact: Catherine R Marinac, PhD 617-632-4703 CatherineR_Marinac@dfci.harvard.edu
Contact: Omar Nadeem, MD 617-632-4703 Omar_Nadeem@dfci.harvard.edu

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United States, Massachusetts
Brigham and Women's Hospital Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Contact: Omar Nadeem, MD    617-632-4703    Omar_Nadeem@dfci.harvard.edu   
Principal Investigator: Omar Nadeem, MD         
Dana Farber Cancer Institute Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215
Contact: Omar Nadeem, MD    617-632-4703    Omar_Nadeem@dfci.harvard.edu   
Principal Investigator: Omar Nadeem, MD         
Dana-Farber at Brighton Recruiting
Brighton, Massachusetts, United States, 02135
Contact: Darren Evanchuk, MD         
Principal Investigator: Darren Evanchuk, MD         
Dana-Farber at Merrimack Valley Recruiting
Methuen, Massachusetts, United States, 01844
Contact: Pedro Sanz, MD, PhD         
Principal Investigator: Pedro Sanz-Altamira, MD         
Dana-Farber at Milford Recruiting
Milford, Massachusetts, United States, 01757
Contact: Michael Constantine, MD    508-488-3700    Michael_Constantine@dfci.harvard.edu   
Principal Investigator: Michael Constantine, MD         
DF/ BWCC in Clinical Affiliation with South Shore Hospital Recruiting
Weymouth, Massachusetts, United States, 02190
Contact: Nancy Kaddis, MD         
Principal Investigator: Nancy Kaddis, MD         
United States, New Hampshire
Dana-Farber at NHOH Recruiting
Londonderry, New Hampshire, United States, 35053
Contact: Jeanna Walsh, MD         
Principal Investigator: Jeanna Walsh, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Principal Investigator: Omar Nadeem, MD Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Study Director: Catherine R Marinac, PhD Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
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Responsible Party: Omar Nadeem, Principal Investigator, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04850846    
Other Study ID Numbers: 21-008
K22CA251648 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: April 20, 2021    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 4, 2022
Last Verified: October 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: The Dana-Farber / Harvard Cancer Center encourages and supports the responsible and ethical sharing of data from clinical trials. De-identified participant data from the final research dataset used in the published manuscript may only be shared under the terms of a Data Use Agreement. Requests may be directed to: CatherineR_Marinac@dfci.harvard.edu. The protocol and statistical analysis plan will be made available on Clinicaltrials.gov only as required by federal regulation or as a condition of awards and agreements supporting the research.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Time Frame: Data can be shared no earlier than 1 year following the date of publication
Access Criteria: Contact the Belfer Office for Dana-Farber Innovations (BODFI) at innovation@dfci.harvard.edu

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Omar Nadeem, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute:
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
Smoldering Multiple Myeloma
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Smoldering Multiple Myeloma
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Precancerous Conditions
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs