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Trying to Find the Correct Length of Treatment With Immune Checkpoint Therapy

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04637594
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : November 20, 2020
Last Update Posted : October 12, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology

Brief Summary:
This phase III trial compares survival in urothelial cancer patients who stop immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment after being treated for about a year to those patients who continue treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as avelumab, durvalumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, and nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Stopping immune checkpoint inhibitors early may still make the tumor shrink and patients may have similar survival rates as the patients who continue treatment. Stopping treatment early may also lead to fewer treatment-related side effects, an improvement in mental health, and a lower cost burden to patients.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Locally Advanced Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Locally Advanced Renal Pelvis Urothelial Carcinoma Locally Advanced Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma Locally Advanced Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma Locally Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma Metastatic Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Metastatic Renal Pelvis Urothelial Carcinoma Metastatic Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma Metastatic Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Drug: Pembrolizumab Drug: Nivolumab Drug: Atezolizumab Drug: Durvalumab Drug: Avelumab Phase 3

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:

I. To compare overall survival (OS).

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To compare progression free survival (PFS) by (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) RECIST 1.1 criteria.

II. To compare PFS by immune-related (ir)RECIST criteria. III. To determine treatment-free interval (TFI) after immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) discontinuation. (Arm B) IV. To determine the rate of response by RECIST 1.1 criteria after ICI rechallenge. (Arm B) V. To assess adverse events in each study arm by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) 5.0.

OUTLINE: Patient are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

ARM A (CONTINUATION OF ICI TREATMENT): Patients receive either pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1, nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 15, atezolizumab IV over 30-60 minutes on day 1, durvalumab IV over 60 minutes on days 1 and 15, or avelumab IV over 60 minutes on days 1 and 15. Cycles repeat every 21 or 42 days for pembrolizumab, every 21 days for atezolizumab, and 28 days for nivolumab, durvalumab, and avelumab in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, starting new treatment or withdrawn consent, patients are followed up at 4 weeks, and then every 6 months for 5 years following registration.

ARM B (DISCONTINUATION OF ICI TREATMENT): Patients receiving ICI treatment will discontinue ICI treatment within 1 cycle length after randomization. Cycle length is determined by the ICI regimen the patient is receiving at randomization. At disease progression patients may restart the same ICI treatment they were receiving upon randomization at physician discretion.

After initiation of new treatment (after ICI rechallenge or without ICI rechallenge), or progression (after ICI rechallenge or without ICI rechallenge), patients are followed up at 4 weeks, and then every 6 months for 5 years following registration.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 1038 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Duration of Immune Checkpoint Therapy in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: A Randomized Phase 3 Non-Inferiority Trial
Actual Study Start Date : December 10, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 2026
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 2030

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Arm A (immune checkpoint inhibitor)

CONTINUATION OF ICI TREATMENT:

Patients receive either pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1, nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 15, atezolizumab IV over 30-60 minutes on day 1, durvalumab IV over 60 minutes on days 1 and 15, or avelumab IV over 60 minutes on days 1 and 15. Cycles repeat every 21 or 42 days for pembrolizumab, every 21 days for atezolizumab, and 28 days for nivolumab, durvalumab, and avelumab in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Drug: Pembrolizumab
Given IV

Drug: Nivolumab
Given IV

Drug: Atezolizumab
Given IV

Drug: Durvalumab
Given IV

Drug: Avelumab
Given IV

Experimental: Arm B (immune checkpoint inhibitor)

DISCONTINUATION OF ICI TREATMENT:

Patients receiving ICI treatment will discontinue ICI treatment within 1 cycle length after randomization. Cycle length is determined by the ICI regimen the patient is receiving at randomization. At disease progression patients may restart the same ICI treatment they were receiving upon randomization at physician discretion.

Drug: Pembrolizumab
Given IV

Drug: Nivolumab
Given IV

Drug: Atezolizumab
Given IV

Drug: Durvalumab
Given IV

Drug: Avelumab
Given IV




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall survival (OS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until death due to any cause, assessed up to 5 years ]
    OS is the length of time patients are alive after registering to receive protocol treatment. Patients who are lost to follow-up or are not known to be deceased at the time of study analysis will be censored at the time of last patient contact. Cox models will be used to compare the outcome between the two treatment groups.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-free survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until disease progression or death due to any cause, assessed up to 5 years ]
    Progression-free survival (PFS) is the length of time patients are alive without disease progression. Progression will be assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria. Stratified Cox models will be used to compare the outcomes between the two treatment groups.

  2. Immune-related progression-free survival (iPFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until disease progression as assessed by irRECIST criteria or death due to any cause, assessed up to 5 years ]
    Immune-related progression-free survival (iPFS) is the length of time patients are alive without immune-related progression. Progression will be assessed using immune related (ir)RECIST criteria. Stratified Cox models will be used to compare the outcomes between the two treatment groups.

  3. Treatment-free interval (Arm B) [ Time Frame: From last dose of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) to initiation of a subsequent systemic treatment or death, assessed up to 5 years ]
    Treatment-free Interval is the length of time patients are off treatment. A Stratified Cox model will be used to evaluate this outcome.

  4. Rate of response after immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) rechallenge (Arm B) [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]
    Rate of response is the percentage of patients with response after re-initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy after progression post-registration. Rate of response will be assessed using RECIST 1.1. A chi-square test (or Fisher's exact test) will be used to determine whether there is an association between the best tumor response prior to trial enrollment and that achieved upon ICI re-challenge.

  5. Incidence of adverse events (AEs) [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years ]
    Adverse events (AEs) are ailments occurring during treatment. AEs will be assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. Frequencies and relative frequencies will be produced in a descriptive manner.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Documentation of disease

    • Histologic documentation: Histologically or cytologically confirmed urothelial carcinoma (UC) with predominantly transitional-cell features
    • Stage: Locally advanced or metastatic disease prior to starting immune checkpoint blockade
    • Tumor Site: Bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, or urethra
  • Patients must be receiving current active treatment with standard of care (SOC) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved PD-1/L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-containing therapy for locally advance or metastatic UC
  • Radiographic response 12-15 months after starting ICI-containing treatment, defined as any percent decrease in target and/or non-target lesion(s) criteria that is confirmed by repeat assessment(s) no less than 4 weeks after the criteria for response are first met without evidence of progressive disease
  • Adequate bone marrow and organ functions to continue PD-1/L1 ICI as judged by the treating physician
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2
  • Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis is allowed if radiographically stable, clinically asymptomatic, and prior local therapy (if received) was completed > 6 months before registration

Exclusion Criteria:

  • No toxicity from ICI therapy that makes continuation of treatment clinically unacceptable
  • No history of tuberculosis, active hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV), or uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    • Patients with resolved HBV infection, defined as positive hepatitis B core antibody (anti-Hb) and negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), are eligible
    • Patients with positive HCV antibody are eligible if HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is negative
    • Patients with HIV who are compliant with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and have normal CD4 count and undetectable viral load are eligible
  • No history of allogeneic organ transplantation
  • No current immunosuppressive medication exceeding 10 mg/day of prednisone or its equivalent

    * Patients with pre-existing or treatment-emergent autoimmune or inflammatory disorders which do not require systemic immunosuppressive treatment exceeding 10 mg/day of prednisone or its equivalent may be included

  • No history of another primary malignancy except for malignancy treated with curative intent with no known active disease for >= 2 years, and adequately treated non-melanomatous skin cancer or carcinoma in situ (e.g. cervical carcinoma in situ [CIS]) without evidence of disease
  • No female patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding, or male or female patients of reproductive potential who are not willing to employ effective birth control, because this study involves investigational agents whose genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects on the developing fetus and newborn are unknown. Therefore, for women of childbearing potential only, a negative urine or serum pregnancy test pregnancy test done =< 14 days prior to registration is required

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04637594


Contacts
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Contact: Xiao X. Wei, MD, MAS 617-632-4524 xiaox_wei@dfci.harvard.edu

Locations
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Sponsors and Collaborators
Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
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Study Chair: Xiao X. Wei, MD, MAS Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
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Responsible Party: Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04637594    
Other Study ID Numbers: A031901
NCI-2020-08395 ( Registry Identifier: NCI Clinical Trial Reporting Program )
U10CA180821 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: November 20, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 12, 2021
Last Verified: October 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Pembrolizumab
Nivolumab
Durvalumab
Avelumab
Atezolizumab
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action