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Comparing the Outcome of Immunotherapy-Based Drug Combination Therapy With or Without Surgery to Remove the Kidney in Metastatic Kidney Cancer, the PROBE Trial (PROBE)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04510597
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : August 12, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 13, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Southwest Oncology Group

Brief Summary:
This phase III trial compares the effect of adding surgery to a standard of care immunotherapy-based drug combination versus a standard of care immunotherapy-based drug combination alone in treating patients with kidney cancer that has spread to other places in the body (metastatic). Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and avelumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Axitinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Surgery to remove the kidney, called a nephrectomy, is also considered standard of care; however, doctors who treat kidney cancer do not agree on its benefits. It is not yet known if the addition of surgery to an immunotherapy-based drug combination works better than an immunotherapy-based drug combination alone in treating patients with kidney cancer.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v8 Procedure: Cytoreductive Nephrectomy Drug: Active Comparator Phase 3

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 364 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase III Trial of Immunotherapy-Based Combination Therapy With or Without Cytoreductive Nephrectomy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (PROBE Trial)
Actual Study Start Date : November 16, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 2033
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 2033


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Arm 1: Continued Systemic Therapy Only

Nivolumab 240 mg IV 1 q 2 weeks

OR

Nivolumab 480 mg IV 1 q 4 weeks

OR

Pembrolizumab 200 mg IV 1 q 3 weeks Axitinib 5 mg oral Daily BID

OR

Avelumab 10 mg/kg IV 1 q 2 weeks Axitinib 5 mg oral Daily BID

Procedure: Cytoreductive Nephrectomy
Radical or partial nephrectomy may be performed using laparoscopic, open, or robotic approaches. Surgery should be performed within 8 weeks of randomization

Drug: Active Comparator

Nivolumab 240 mg IV 1 q 2 weeks

OR

Nivolumab 480 mg IV 1 q 4 weeks

OR

Pembrolizumab 200 mg IV 1 q 3 weeks Axitinib 5 mg oral Daily BID

OR

Avelumab 10 mg/kg IV 1 q 2 weeks Axitinib 5 mg oral Daily BID


Experimental: Arm 2: Nephrectomy and Continued Systemic Therapy

Continued systemic therapy as above, plus:

Radical or partial nephrectomy may be performed using laparoscopic, open, or robotic approaches. Surgery should be performed within 8 weeks of randomization.

Procedure: Cytoreductive Nephrectomy
Radical or partial nephrectomy may be performed using laparoscopic, open, or robotic approaches. Surgery should be performed within 8 weeks of randomization




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall survival [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to date of death due to any cause, assessed up to 7 years. ]
    Analysis will be intent-to-treat. Evidence suggesting early termination of the trial and a conclusion that the cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) approach is superior to treatment alone would be if the null hypothesis is rejected at the one-sided 0.005 level. For the second and third interim analyses, the null and alternative hypotheses with respect to survival will be tested, with superiority tested at the one-sided 0.005 level, and futility determined to be met if the (CN versus no CN) hazard ratio is greater than or equal to 1. A proportional hazards model will be fit to estimate the hazard ratio adjusting for the stratification factors as covariates in the model. Will evaluate whether each of the stratification factors are predictive factors of cytoreductive nephrectomy by placing an interaction term corresponding to each stratification factor and treatment arm in the proportional hazards survival model.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall survival in subset who received assigned protocol treatment [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to date of death due to any cause, assessed up to 7 years ]
    Will be included in the proportional hazards regression model adjusting for stratification factors as covariates.

  2. Progression-free survival [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to date of first documentation of progression, or death due to any cause, assessed up to 7 years ]
    A proportional hazards model will be used to compare progression-free survival between arms, adjusting for the stratification factors as covariates.

  3. Objective response [ Time Frame: Up to 7 years ]
    Objective response includes all confirmed and unconfirmed partial and complete responses. Baseline will be disease assessment at randomization. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response rates will be evaluated, excluding the primary tumor in the kidney because that disease will be removed in half the participant's post-randomization. Comparison of response rates will be performed using logistic regression with stratification factors as covariates and an indicator for treatment arm.

  4. Change in maximum diameter of primary tumor [ Time Frame: From the disease assessment just prior to the start of immunotherapy to the week 12 disease assessment ]
    Descriptive statistics will be provided including stratified results by treatment regimen received. Potential additional analyses may include assessment of the interaction between change in primary tumor and randomized treatment arm. This will be modeled as an interaction term in the proportional hazards survival model.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must have a histologically proven diagnosis of clear cell or non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Participants with collecting duct carcinoma histology are not eligible. Participants with multifocal or bilateral tumors are eligible
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must have primary tumor in place
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must have the following scans performed, showing clinical evidence of measurable or non-measurable metastatic disease:

    • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest (can be performed without contrast if CT contrast cannot be given)
    • CT of abdomen and pelvis with contrast OR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis with or without contrast

Scans must be performed within the following timeframes:

  • Treatment naive participants must have scans documenting metastatic disease completed within 90 days prior to study registration
  • Previously treated participants must have scans documenting metastatic disease completed within 90 days prior to first dose of systemic treatment

    • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants with symptomatic metastases may have received palliative radiotherapy or receive palliative radiotherapy after registration
    • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must have no clear contraindications to nephrectomy
    • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must be offered the opportunity to participate in specimen bank. With participant consent, specimens must be collected and submitted via the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) Specimen Tracking System
    • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must be informed of the investigational nature of this study and must sign and give informed consent in accordance with institutional and federal guidelines
    • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: As part of the Oncology Patient Enrollment Network (OPEN) registration process the treating institution's identity is provided in order to ensure that the current (within 365 days) date of institutional review board approval for this study has been entered in the system
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must have at least one of the following scans performed 12 weeks (+/- 2 weeks) after starting pre-randomization treatment
  • CT scan of the chest (can be performed without contrast if CT contrast cannot be given)
  • CT of abdomen and pelvis with contrast OR MRI of the abdomen and pelvis with or without contrast Scans must be performed within 28 days prior to randomization. Response should be assessed by comparing with a CT or MRI of the chest, abdomen and pelvis obtained prior to starting pre-randomization treatment. Participants with complete response in all metastatic sites are not eligible to randomize to Step 2

    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must have one of the following objective statuses after 12 weeks of pre-randomization treatment

  • Stable disease
  • Partial response
  • The treating investigator believes the patient is deriving clinical benefit from systemic therapy AND have Zubrod performance status 0-1

    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must plan to continue the immune-based therapy received during pre-randomization treatment
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must be randomized on or between the 11th and 14th week of protocol-directed pre-randomization treatment therapy
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must have received at least one of the minimum amounts of immunotherapy:
  • 2 infusions of nivolumab + 1 infusion of ipilimumab
  • 2 infusions of pembrolizumab
  • 2 infusions of avelumab

    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must have a planned surgery date within 42 days of randomization
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must be a surgical candidate as determined by study urologist. The urology consult should be done within 42 days prior to randomization
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must have a complete physical examination and medical history within 28 days prior to randomization
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must have a Zubrod performance status of 0-1 within 28 days prior to randomization
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Total bilirubin =< institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (within 28 days prior to randomization)
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 3 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (within 28 days prior to randomization)
    • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x the institutional upper limit of normal (IULN) OR measured OR calculated creatinine clearance >= 50 mL/min using the Cockcroft-Gault Formula) (must have been drawn and processed within 28 days prior to randomization)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have known active brain metastases. Participants with previously treated brain metastases are eligible if participant has no neurologic signs or symptoms suggestive of brain metastasis. Brain imaging studies are not required. If brain imaging studies are performed, they must be negative for disease
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have received the following prior treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma:

    • Treatment naive participants must not have received any prior lines of systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma beyond the line intended as part of protocol therapy
    • Previously treated participants must not have received any systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma beyond the one regimen received off protocol as specified in Step 1 pre-randomization treatment
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have received more than the following amounts protocol-directed pre-randomization treatment:

    • Treatment naive participants must not have received any pre-randomization treatment.
    • Previously treated participants must not be planning to receive any additional treatment prior to Step 2 randomization, and must not have received more than the following amounts of pre-randomization treatment:

      • 4 infusions of nivolumab
      • 4 infusions of ipilimumab
      • 4 infusions of pembrolizumab
      • 7 infusions of avelumab
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have received immunotherapy for any cancer within the following timeframes:

    • Treatment naive participants must not have received any immunotherapy within a year of registration
    • Previously treated participants must not have received any other immunotherapy within a year of the start of off protocol specified pre-randomization treatment
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have a solitary kidney and not have a transplanted kidney
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: No other prior malignancy is allowed except for the following: adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, any in situ or T1 cancer, adequately treated stage I or II cancer from which the participant is currently in complete remission, or any other cancer from which the participant has been disease free for at least two years
  • STEP 1 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have been previously diagnosed with a medical condition that makes them ineligible for immune based combination therapy or nephrectomy
  • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must not show progression in the primary tumor. Participants who are considered to have pseudo progression are allowed
  • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: Participants must not have known active brain metastases. Participants with previously treated brain metastases are eligible if participant has no neurologic signs or symptoms suggestive of brain metastasis. Brain imaging studies are not required. If brain imaging studies are performed, they must be negative for disease
  • STEP 2 REGISTRATION: No other prior malignancy is allowed except for the following: adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, in situ cervical cancer, adequately treated stage I or II cancer from which the participant is currently in complete remission, or any other cancer from which the participant has been disease free for two years

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04510597


Contacts
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Contact: Veronica Garcia, MS 210-614-8808 ext 0944 vgarcia@swog.org
Contact: Dana Sparks, MAT 210-614-8808 ext 1004 dsparks@swog.org

Locations
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Sponsors and Collaborators
Southwest Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Southwest Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04510597    
Other Study ID Numbers: S1931
NCI-2020-04442 ( Other Identifier: NCI )
First Posted: August 12, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 13, 2021
Last Verified: May 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Adenocarcinoma
Kidney Neoplasms
Urologic Neoplasms
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases