Intermediate-dose vs Standard Prophylactic Anticoagulation and Statin vs Placebo in ICU Patients With COVID-19 (INSPIRATION)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04486508|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 24, 2020
Last Update Posted : August 17, 2021
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Covid19||Drug: intermediate dose Enoxaparin/ unfractionated heparin Drug: standard prophylactic dose Enoxaparin/ unfractionated heparin Drug: Atorvastatin 20mg Drug: Matched placebo||Phase 3|
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) -- a viral illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) -- has important manifestations outside the pulmonary parenchyma, including microthrombosis and macrothrombosis, with venous thrombosis being the most common form of thrombotic involvement. Existing studies, depending on the type of outcome assessment and type and dose of prophylaxis, have reported thrombotic events in 7-85% of patients with COVID-19.
However, the optimal antithrombotic regimen in these patients remains uncertain. Although many clinicians continue to consider standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, other believe that more intense anticoagulation may reduce the thrombotic events, and improve outcomes. However, limited high-quality data exist to inform clinical practice and the existing guidelines recommendations are mostly based on expert opinion and consensus.
In addition, exuberant inflammatory response is known to play a role in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19. It is possible that the pleiotropic effects of statins, which include anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects, prove beneficial in patients with severe COVID-19.
This study plans to investigate the safety and efficacy of two pharmacological regimens on outcomes of critically-ill patients with COVID-19 using a 2x2 factorial design.
First, patients will be assessed for the eligibility criteria for the anticoagulation hypothesis. Those meeting the criteria, will be assigned to intermediate versus standard dose prophylactic anticoagulation. These patients will subsequently be assessed for eligibility for the second randomization, and if meeting the criteria, will be assigned to atorvastatin 20mg/d or matching placebo.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||600 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Factorial Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||1:1 multicenter open-label 2x2 factorial design randomized controlled trial with allocation sequence concealment and blinded endpoint adjudication.|
|Masking:||Single (Outcomes Assessor)|
For the first hypothesis, allocation sequence concealment and blinded endpoint adjudication.
For the second hypothesis, allocation sequence concealment, double-blind medication administration, and blinded endpoint adjudication.
|Official Title:||Intermediate-dose Versus Standard Prophylactic Anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents With COVID-19: An opeN Label Randomized Controlled Trial---A Randomized Trial of Atorvastatin vs. Placebo In Critically-ill Patients With COVID-19|
|Actual Study Start Date :||July 30, 2020|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||April 4, 2021|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||July 5, 2021|
Experimental: Intermediate dose anticoagulation
Intermediate dose anticoagulation will be the the tested regimen. The anticoagulation regimen will be modified according to weight/ body mass index, and creatinine clearance level (Cl Cr). Enoxaparin will be the primary agent for anticoagulation, with unfractionated heparin reserved only for patients with creatinine clearance of ≤15 mL/min according to Cockcroft-Gault Formula.
Drug: intermediate dose Enoxaparin/ unfractionated heparin
Intermediate dose anticoagulation according to creatinine clearance and weight
Other Name: Intermediate dose anticoagulation
Active Comparator: Standard Prophylaxis
Standard prophylaxis dose anticoagulation will be the anticoagulation of choice in the control arm. Enoxaparin will be the primary agent for anticoagulation, with unfractionated heparin reserved only for patients with creatinine clearance of ≤15 mL/min according Cockcroft-Gault Formula.
Drug: standard prophylactic dose Enoxaparin/ unfractionated heparin
Standard prophylaxis anticoagulation according to creatinine clearance and weight
Other Name: Standard dose prophylaxis anticoagulation
Experimental: Atorvastatin 20
Atorvastatin 20 mg daily will be the statin therapy of choice in the intervention arm
Drug: Atorvastatin 20mg
Other Name: Statin
Placebo Comparator: Atorvastatin 20 mg Matched placebo
Matching placebo will be used for the control arm
Drug: Matched placebo
Matched placebo to atorvastatin 20 mg
Other Name: Statin
- a composite of acute VTE, arterial thrombosis, treatment with ECMO, or all-cause mortality [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]composite of adjudicated 30-day acute VTE, arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or all-cause mortality.
- Rate of all-cause mortality [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Patient status regarding to being alive or dead at the end of 30-day follow up
- Rate of objectively-confirmed VTE [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Distal or proximal deep vein thrombosis which has been confirmed by ultrasonography or venography/ PE confirmed by at least one CTPA or lung scan
- Ventilator free days [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Difference between days of ICU stay and days on invasive mechanical ventilation
- Rate of major bleeding [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]According to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC 3 or 5 bleeding)
- Rate of clinically-relevant non-major bleeding [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Clinically-significant bleeding, not fulfilling criteria for major bleeding)
- Rate of severe thrombocytopenia [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Platelet count <20.000
- Rate of rise in liver enzymes [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Increase liver function tests 3 times greater than upper limit of normal
- Clinically-diagnosed myopathy [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Assessed by clinical and biomarker tests according to the treating physicians.
- Objectively-confirmed arterial thrombosis [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Imaging confirmed acute arterial thrombosis (by ultrasonography, CT, MRI, or invasive angiography)
- Rate of objectively clinically-diagnosed type I acute myocardial infarction [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]According to the fourth universal definition of myocardial infraction and confirmed by coronary angiography, intravascular imaging or autopsy
- Rate of objectively clinically -diagnosed stroke [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Any stroke episode which has been confirmed with appropriate diagnostic imaging (brain CT and/or brain MRI)
- Rate of objectively clinically -diagnosed acute peripheral arterial thrombosis [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Imaging confirmed acute peripheral arterial thrombosis (by ultrasonography, CT, MRI, or invasive angiography)
- Median ICU length of stay [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Number of days that a patient has stayed in the ICU
- ICU discharge status [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Status of patients regarding to mortality (alive/dead) at the time of discharge from ICU
- Incident atrial fibrillation [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Any AF episode which has been confirmed by at least one ECG or telemetry monitoring, in patients without prior history of AF
- Rate of need for renal replacement therapy [ Time Frame: 30 days from enrollment ]Use hemodialysis or veno-venous hemofiltration or peritoneal dialysis for a patient during the hospitalization period, due to acute kidney injury
- Post-COVID-19 Functional Status [ Time Frame: 60 and 90 -day ]Based on Post-COVID-19 Functional Status questionnaire, which varies fro score 0 to 4, and higher scores mean worse outcome.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
Inclusion Criteria for Anticoagulation Hypothesis
- Adult patients (≥18 years), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICU within 7 days of initial hospitalization , who do not have another firm indication for anticoagulation (such as mechanical valve, high-risk atrial fibrillation (AF), VTE, or left ventricle (LV) thrombus),who are not enrolled in another blinded randomized trial, and are willing to participate in the study and provide informed consent .
- Estimated survival of at least 24 hours at the discretion of enrolling physician
Exclusion Criteria for Anticoagulation Hypothesis
- Weight <40 Kilogram (kg)
- Overt bleeding at the day of enrollment
- Known major bleeding within 30 days (according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) definition, Appendix A)
- Platelet count <50,000/Fl
- Pregnancy (as confirmed by Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) testing among female patients <50 years)
- Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
- History of heparin induced thrombocytopenia or immune thrombocytopenia
- Ischemic stroke within the past 2 weeks
- Craniotomy/major neurosurgery within the past 3 months
- Major head or spinal trauma in the past 30 days
- Known brain metastases or vascular malformations (aneurysm)
- Presence of an epidural, spinal or pericardial catheter
- Major surgery other than neurosurgery within 14 days prior to enrollment
- Coexistence of severe obesity (weight >120 kg or BMI>35 kg/m2 along with severe renal insufficiency defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) <30 mL/sec)
- Allergic reaction to study medications
- Lack or withdrawal of informed consent
Inclusion Criteria for the Statin Randomization
- Patients enrolled for the anticoagulation randomization
- Willingness to participation in the study and providing informed consent
Exclusions Criteria for the Statin Randomization
- Baseline liver function tests> 3 times upper normal limits (ULN) or creatine kinase (CK) >500 U/L
- Active liver disease (LFT>3 ULN plus histologic finding including cirrhosis or inflammation or necrosis)
- Routine use of statins prior to the index hospitalization
- Previous documented statin intolerance
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04486508
|Iran, Islamic Republic of|
|Masih Daneshvari Hospital|
|Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of, 199691110|
|Principal Investigator:||Parham Sadeghipour, MD||Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center|
|Principal Investigator:||Behnood Bikdeli, MD, MS||Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School|
Publications of Results:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
|Responsible Party:||Parham Sadeghipour, Associate Professor, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||July 24, 2020 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||August 17, 2021|
|Last Verified:||August 2021|
|Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:|
|Plan to Share IPD:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
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