Targeting Risk Factors for Diabetes in Subjects With Normal Blood Cholesterol Using Omega-3 Fatty Acids
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04485871|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : July 24, 2020
Last Update Posted : March 23, 2023
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Every 3 minutes a new case of diabetes is diagnosed in Canada, mostly type 2 diabetes (T2D) increasing the risk for heart disease. T2D and heart disease share many common risk factors such as aging, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle.
Paradoxically however, while lowering blood LDL, commonly known as "bad cholesterol", is protective against heart disease, research over the past 10 years have shown that the lower is blood LDL, the higher is the chance of developing T2D. This phenomena is happening whether blood LDL is lowered by a common drug against heart disease called Statins, or by being born with certain variations in genes, some of which are very common (~80% of people have them).
To date, it is unclear why lowering blood LDL is associated with higher risk for diabetes, and whether this can be treated naturally with certain nutrients.
Investigators believe that lowering blood LDL by forcing LDL entry into the body tissue through their receptors promotes T2D. This is because investigators have shown that LDL entry into human fat tissue induces fat tissue dysfunction, which would promote T2D especially in subjects with excess weight.
On the other hand, investigators have shown that omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) can directly treat the same defects induced by LDL entry into fat tissue. Omega-3 is a unique type of fat that is found mostly in fish oil.
Thus the objectives of this clinical trial to be conducted in 48 subjects with normal blood LDL are to explore if:
- Subjects with higher LDL receptors and LDL entry into fat tissue have higher risk factors for T2D compared to subjects with lower LDL receptors and LDL entry into fat tissue
- 6-month supplementation of omega-3 from fish oil can treat subjects with higher LDL receptors and LDL entry into fat tissue reducing their risk for T2D.
This study will thus explore and attempt to treat a new risk factor for T2D using an inexpensive and widely accessible nutraceutical, which would aid in preventing T2D in humans.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Type 2 Diabetes Inflammation Insulin Sensitivity/Resistance Fatty Acids, Omega-3||Dietary Supplement: Omega-3 fatty acids||Not Applicable|
Type 2 (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share many risk factors, whose accumulation over years lead to disease onset. However, while lowering plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) is cardio-protective, novel evidence over the past 10 years established a role for common LDLC-lowering variants and widely used hypocholesterolemic Statins in higher risk for T2D. This diminishes the cardio-protective role of low plasma LDLC. As these conditions decrease plasma LDLC by increasing tissue-uptake of LDL, a role for LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway was proposed. However underlying mechanisms fueling higher risk for T2D with upregulated LDLR pathway, and nutritional approaches to treat them are unclear.
The central hypothesis examined in this trial is that upregulating receptor-mediated uptake of LDL on white adipose tissue provokes the activation of an innate immunity pathway (the Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat Receptor, containing a Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome) leading to the accumulation of risk factors for T2D in subjects with normal plasma LDLC. This can be treated by 6-month supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3).
To examine this hypothesis in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro, a clinical trial in conjunction with mechanistic basic research studies have been initiated at the Montreal Clinical Research Institute (IRCM). Forty eight volunteers will be recruited through advertisements in French/English newspapers and online (e.g. Google, Facebook) and placed on a 6-month supplementation of 3.6 g omega-3 per day. Participants will be stratified into 2 groups (N=24/group) with higher and lower white adipose tissue surface-expression LDL receptors (LDLR and CD36) using median plasma PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9) per sex. Plasma PSCK9 will be used as investigators have shown that it is negatively associated with white adipose tissue surface-expression of LDLR and CD36.
The duration of this study is about 8 months (33 weeks) divided into 5 parts:
A. Screening and evaluation of eligibility for the study
B. Weight stabilisation (+/- 2 kg change over 4 weeks) and confirmation of eligibility after a medical examination by IRCM physician collaborators.
C. Baseline testing over 2 days (1- 4 weeks apart) to assess participants risk factors for T2D: white adipose tissue NLRP3 inflammasome activity, white adipose tissue physiology and function (ex vivo after a subcutaneous needle biopsy), systemic inflammation, dietary fat clearance (after a high fat meal), and insulin secretion and sensitivity (by gold-standard Botnia clamp technique). Participants will also be phenotyped for body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), resting energy expenditure (by indirect calorimetry), dietary intake (by 3-day dietary journals) and physical activity level (by a questionnaire).
D. 24-week intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (3.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), 2:1)
E. Post intervention testing starting over 2 days (1- 4 weeks apart) to assess risk factors for T2D that were measured at baseline.
Investigators hypothesize that subjects with low plasma PCSK9 (i.e. with higher white adipose tissue LDLR and CD36) will have higher risk factors for T2D at baseline and that the omega-3 intervention will eliminate group-differences in these risk factors.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||48 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Subjects (N=48) will be recruited with the same inclusion/exclusion criteria and will received the same omega-3 intervention. After completion of recruitment, subjects will be stratified into 2 groups (24/group) based on a baseline plasma PCSK9 for group characterisation and comparison.|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Masking Description:||However, subjects will not know into which group they were stratified.|
|Official Title:||White Adipose Tissue LDL Receptors and Omega-3 as Modulators of the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Subjects With Normal Plasma LDL Cholesterol|
|Actual Study Start Date :||December 19, 2019|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||March 31, 2024|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||October 31, 2025|
Experimental: Omega-3 fatty acids
3.6 g EPA:DHA / day (2:1)
Dietary Supplement: Omega-3 fatty acids
Tripple Strength Omega-3 from Webber Naturals; 4 oral softgels (600 mg EPA and 300 mg DHA / softgel)
Other Name: Tripple Strength Omega-3 from Webber Naturals
- Fasting white adipose tissue NLRP3 inflammasome activation [ Time Frame: Baseline ]White adipose tissue medium accumulation of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) ex vivo over 4 hours (pg/mg tissue by AlphaLISA)
- Fasting white adipose tissue NLRP3 inflammasome activation [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]White adipose tissue medium accumulation of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) ex vivo over 4 hours (pg/mg tissue by AlphaLISA)
- Fasting plasma PCSK9 concentration [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Plasma PCSK9 (g/L by ElISA kit)
- Fasting plasma PCSK9 concentration [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Plasma PCSK9 (g/L by ElISA kit)
- White adipose tissue receptors for apoB-lipoproteins [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Fasting and 4 hour-postprandial change in white adipose tissue surface-expression LDLR and CD36 (% of control by immunohistochemistry in white adipose tissue slides)
- White adipose tissue receptors for apoB-lipoproteins [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Fasting and 4 hour-postprandial change in white adipose tissue surface-expression LDLR and CD36 (% of control by immunohistochemistry in white adipose tissue slides)
- White adipose tissue inflammation profile [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Fasting and 4 hour-postprandial change in NLRP3 inflammasome related inflammatory parameters; including gene expression of IL1B, NLRP3 and ADGRE1 (by RT-PCR) and secretion of IL-1β and IL-1Ra (per mg tissue by AlphaLISA)
- White adipose tissue inflammation profile [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Fasting and 4 hour-postprandial change in NLRP3 inflammasome related inflammatory parameters; including gene expression of IL1B, NLRP3 and ADGRE1 (by RT-PCR) and secretion of IL-1β and IL-1Ra (per mg tissue by AlphaLISA)
- White adipose tissue function ex vivo [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Fasting and 4 hour postprandial change in situ lipoprotein lipase activity (nmol 3H-triglyceride/mg tissue)
- White adipose tissue function ex vivo [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Fasting and 4 hour postprandial change in situ lipoprotein lipase activity (nmol 3H-triglyceride/mg tissue)
- Postprandial fat metabolism [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Area under the 6 hour time curve of plasma triglycerides (mmol/hour) after a high-fat meal (66% fat)
- Postprandial fat metabolism [ Time Frame: At 24 week ]Area under the 6 hour time curve of plasma triglycerides (mmol/hour) after a high-fat meal (66% fat)
- Systemic inflammation [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Fasting and 4 hour postprandial change in plasma inflammatory parameters including IL-1Ra and IL-1β (pg/mL by AlphaLISA)
- Systemic inflammation [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Fasting and 4 hour postprandial change in plasma inflammatory parameters including IL-1Ra and IL-1β (pg/mLby AlphaLISA)
- Disposition index [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Calculated as glucose-induced insulin secretion (uU/mL/min) multiplied by insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate mg/kg/min) measured by Botnia clamp
- Disposition index [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Calculated as glucose-induced insulin secretion (uU/mL/min) multiplied by insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate mg/kg/min) measured by Botnia clamp
- Fatty acid profile in red blood cell phospholipid fraction [ Time Frame: Baseline ](As μmol/L by gas chromatography mass spectrometry)
- Fatty acid profile in red blood cell phospholipid fraction [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ](As μmol/L by gas chromatography mass spectrometry)
- Body composition [ Time Frame: Baseline ]Fat and lean body mass (as kg by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry)
- Body composition [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ]Fat and lean body mass (as kg by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry)
- Resting energy expenditure [ Time Frame: Baseline ](As kcal/hour by indirect calorimetry)
- Resting energy expenditure [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ](As kcal/day by indirect calorimetry)
- Energy intake [ Time Frame: Baseline ](Average of 3 day energy intake as kcal/day collected by 3-day dietary records)
- Energy intake [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ](Average of 3 day energy intake as kcal/day collected by 3-day dietary records)
- Physical activity [ Time Frame: Baseline ](using Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire)
- Physical activity [ Time Frame: At 24 weeks ](using Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire)
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||45 Years to 74 Years (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||Yes|
Men and post-menopausal women:
- Having a body mass index (BMI= 25-40 kg/m2)
- Aged between 45 and 74 years
- Having confirmed menopausal status (FSH ≥ 30 U/l)
- Sedentary (less than 2 hours of structured physical exercise (ex: sports club) per week)
- Low alcohol consumption: less than 2 alcoholic drinks/day
- Plasma LDL cholesterol > 3.5 mmol/L (i.e. > 75th percentile in a Canadian population).
- Elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (≥ 20% of calculated Framingham Risk Score) who would require immediate medical intervention by lipid-lowering agents.
- Prior history of cardiovascular events (like stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure…)
- Systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg
- Type 1 or 2 diabetes or fasting glucose > 7.0 mmol/L
- Prior history of cancer within the last 3 years
- Thyroid disease - untreated or unstable
- Anemia - Hb < 120 g/L
- Renal dysfunction or plasma creatinine > 100 µmol/L
- Hepatic dysfunction - AST/ALT > 3 times normal limit
- Blood coagulation problems (i.e. bleeding predisposition)
- Autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease (i.e. celiac, inflammatory bowel, Graves, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus).Known history of difficulties accessing a vein
- Sleep apnea
- Concomitant medications: Hormone replacement therapy (except thyroid hormone at a stable dose), systemic corticosteroids, anti-psychotic medications and psycho-active medication, anticoagulant or anti-aggregates treatment (Aspirin, NSAIDs, warfarin, coumadin..), adrenergic agonist, anti-hypertensive drugs, weight-loss medication, lipid lowering medication
- Known substance abuse
- Already taking more than 250 mg of omega-3 supplements (EPA/DHA) per day
- Allergy to seafood or fish
- Allergy to Xylocaine
- Unable to eat the components of the high fat meal (croissant, cheese, bacon, brownies)
- None compliance to the study requirements (i.e. not being fasting) or cancellation of the same scheduled testing visit more than once.
- Lack of time to participate in the full length of the study (33 weeks)
- Have exceeded the annual total allowed radiation dose (like X-ray scans and/or tomography in the previous year or in the year to come) according to the physician's judgement.
- All other medical or psychological conditions deemed inappropriate according to the physician
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04485871
|Contact: Melanie Burnette, MSc||514-987-5500 ext firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Montreal Clinical Research Institute||Recruiting|
|Montréal, Quebec, Canada, H2W 1R7|
|Contact: Melanie Burnette, MSc 514-987-5500 ext 3260 email@example.com|
|Contact: May Faraj, PDt, PhD 514-987-5655 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator: May Faraj, PDt, PhD|
|Principal Investigator:||May Faraj, PDt, PhD||Montreal Clinical Research Institute/ University of Montreal|
|Responsible Party:||May Faraj, PDt, PhD, Professor, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
NUT407816 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) )
|First Posted:||July 24, 2020 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||March 23, 2023|
|Last Verified:||March 2023|
|Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:|
|Plan to Share IPD:||No|
|Plan Description:||Frozen plasma and white adipose tissue samples (when sufficient) can be made available for analysis by other investigators. However data statistical analyses incorporating complete IPD must be conducted by the research team of Dr May Faraj as per subject consent form.|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin / kexin Type 9 (PCSK9)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
White adipose tissue
LDL receptors (LDLR)
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Endocrine System Diseases