Prospective Evaluation of Confirmatory Testing For Primary Aldosteronism
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This is a prospective study (with a target recruitment of 200 participants) designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of the seated saline infusion test and the ultra low-dose ACTH stimulation test for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, using disease-specific treatment response as a reference gold standard. Subjects consenting to study participation will undergo a standardized seated saline infusion test, followed by an ultra low-dose ACTH stimulation test. All participants also receive adrenal vein sampling. Individuals who have unilateral disease and desire surgery will receive adrenalectomy (as part of routine care) and the remaining subjects will receive medical treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Response to targeted treatment will be considered the reference gold standard for the establishing the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism.
Diagnostic Test: Seated intravenous saline infusion test
The test will be conducted by infusing two litres of normal saline intravenously over 4 hours with the patient seated.Blood collection (for aldosterone, cortisol, renin, and electrolytes) will be performed at baseline and after completion of the infusion. Following infusion, plasma aldosterone levels <140 pmol/L will be considered as "negative," levels >280 pmol/L as "positive," and levels in between classified as indeterminate.
Diagnostic Test: Ultra low-dose ACTH stimulation test
The test will be performed by injecting 0.03 mcg of ACTH intravenously. Blood collection (for aldosterone, cortisol, and renin) will be performed at baseline and after 15 minutes. We expect a "positive" response to correspond with a plasma aldosterone >2200 pmol/L and ARR >220 pmol/L/mIU/L following stimulation.
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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Hypertension individuals suspected of having primary aldosteronism.
Individuals with hypertension
Individuals with an elevated screening adrenal renin ration (ARR)
Individuals with high probability features of primary aldosteronism (e.g., resistant hypertension, spontaneous or diuretic-induced hypokalemia, and/or an adrenal nodule) with clinical indications for adrenal vein sampling and surgery (if appropriate).