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The Flipped Classroom Approach in Ophthalmology Residency

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04381676
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 11, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 11, 2020
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Michelle T. Cabrera, University of Washington

Brief Summary:
This study aims to evaluate the flipped classroom approach compared to the traditional classroom approach in teaching horizontal strabismus in ophthalmology residency didactics.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Educational Problems Other: Flipped Classroom Approach

Detailed Description:
Ophthalmology residents (post-graduate years 2-4) from 11 institutions were invited to participate. Participating residents were taught esotropia and exotropia topics sequentially, randomized by order and classroom style (flipped classroom vs. traditional lecture) one to three weeks apart. Participants were assigned a pre-class video lecture prior to the flipped classroom in-class case-based activity. The traditional classroom included a preparatory reading assignment and an in-person lecture delivered by the same instructor. Participants completed three identical 5-question content assessments (pre-test, post-test, and 3-month retention) and opinion surveys following each classroom.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 110 participants
Observational Model: Case-Crossover
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: The Flipped Classroom Approach to Teaching Horizontal Strabismus in Ophthalmology Residency: A Multi-Centered Randomized Controlled Study
Actual Study Start Date : October 1, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 1, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : August 1, 2018

Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Flipped Classroom
Residents in the flipped classroom were assigned a pre-class video lecture prior to completing the flipped classroom in-class case-based activity in groups of 2-3 each.
Other: Flipped Classroom Approach
In the Flipped Classroom, participants form groups of 2-3 and are instructed to work together through clinical cases of the in-class case based activity, committing to group answers to the clinical questions before advancing to the next case. At the end of class, the faculty instructor facilitated a short interactive group discussion.

Traditional Classroom
Residents in the traditional classroom were assigned a pre-class reading assignment followed by a 44-minute lecture that was delivered in-person using PowerPoint.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Resident Preference [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 2 weeks ]
    Participants were asked to complete both a written (Likert-scale) survey in the classroom and an additional online survey (Catalyst WebQ, University of Washington, Seattle, WA) following the classroom session. These surveys asked residents to rate their preference for traditional vs. flipped classroom format, the effectiveness of preparation and classroom material, and the advantages and disadvantages of the flipped classroom format

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Knowledge Acquisition [ Time Frame: Baseline (Before class), immediately after completing the class, 3 months after class ]
    Participants were assessed a total of three times for each course (esotropia and exotropia): once prior to starting the class (pre-test), once immediately after completing the class (post-test), and once three months later. All assessments consisted of 5 OKAP style questions created by fellowship trained ophthalmologists. These test questions were previously piloted. Residents were allotted 5 minutes to complete each test.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Ophthalmology residents from all levels (PGY2-PGY4) in the United States.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Ophthalmology residents of all levels (PGY2-PGY4) from 11 residency programs were invited to participate in this study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Those who did not complete both classroom styles were excluded from the survey data
  • Those who lost their study-IDs were excluded from the results analysis

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT04381676

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United States, Washington
Department of Ophthalmology - University of Washington
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98195
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
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Principal Investigator: Michelle T Cabrera, MD University of Washington
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's taxonomy: an overview. Theory into practice, 41(4), 212-218.
Casasola T SK, Nguyen T, Warschauer M. Can flipping the classroom work? Evidence from undergraduate chemistry. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. 2017;29(3):421-435.
Baepler PM WJ, Driessen M. It's not about seat time: Blending, flipping, and efficiency in active learning classrooms. Computers & Education. 2014;78:227-236.
O'Flaherty J PC. The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education. 2015;25:85-95.
Nouri, J. The flipped classroom: for active, effective and increased learning - especially for low achievers. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 13, 33 (2016).
Låg, T., & Sæle, R. G. (2019). Does the Flipped Classroom Improve Student Learning and Satisfaction? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AERA Open.

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Responsible Party: Michelle T. Cabrera, Associate Professor, School of Medicine, University of Washington Identifier: NCT04381676    
Other Study ID Numbers: STUDY00001185
First Posted: May 11, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 11, 2020
Last Verified: May 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Michelle T. Cabrera, University of Washington:
Flipped Classroom