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Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Anticoagulation on Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04377997
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : May 7, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 7, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mazen Albaghdadi, Massachusetts General Hospital

Brief Summary:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused considerable morbidity and mortality in over 170 countries. Increasing age and burden of cardiovascular comorbidities are associated with a worse prognosis among patients with COVID-19. In addition, serologic markers of more severe disease including coagulation abnormalities and thrombocytopenia, are not uncommon among patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 infection and are more common in patients who died in-hospital. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to grow, there is a pressing need to identify safe, effective, and widely available therapies that can be scaled and rapidly incorporated into clinical practice. Understanding the putative mechanism of increased mortality risk associated with abnormal coagulation function and cardiac injury is critical to guide studies of promising therapeutic interventions. Published and anecdotal reports indicate that endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis are common in critically ill patients with COVID-19, including reports of diffuse microvascular thrombosis in the lungs, heart, liver, and kidneys. Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors are known to have endothelial dysfunction and a heightened risk of thrombosis. A recent study of COVID-19 inpatients from Wuhan, China observed that an elevated D-dimer level greater than 1 ug/mL was associated with an 18 times higher risk of in-hospital death, underscoring the importance of increased coagulation activity as a potential modifiable risk marker that may drive end-organ injury. Given the established link between endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular disease, and the association between coagulopathy and adverse outcomes in patients with sepsis, the association between increased coagulation activity, end-organ injury, and mortality risk may represent a modifiable risk factor among COVID-19 patients with critical illness. Therefore, we propose to conduct a randomized, open-label trial of therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients with an elevated D-dimer to evaluate the efficacy and safety.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Cardiovascular Diseases COVID-19 Drug: Enoxaparin Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Patients identified as eligible through discussions with the primary care team and review of the electronic medical record will be approached and consented as described above in "Subject Enrollment" and "Procedures for obtaining consent".

For research purposes, 20mL of blood will be drawn and stored for biobanking at the following timepoints: at baseline (i.e., after enrollment and before randomization), 5-7 days post-randomization, and on the day of discharge.

After enrollment and blood collection, patients will then be randomized to therapeutic anticoagulation (LMWH for most subjects but UFH for those with morbid obesity or moderate to severe renal dysfunction as noted below) or standard of care.

Based on the MGH COVID-19 Treatment Guidance document, the risk stratification recommends daily complete blood count (CBC), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), creatine kinase (CPK), ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In addition, PT, PTT, fibrinogen, and D-dimer are recommended to be checked every other day if in the ICU or daily if elevated. Given that by virtue of the inclusion criteria of our study (i.e., a D-dimer >1ug/mL), all of our patients will be within Category 3 and all of the above markers will be obtained for clinical purposes and thus will also be documented for research purposes. For clinical risk stratification, LDH is to be checked daily if elevated and troponin to be checked q2-3d if elevated. If clinically indicated, procalcitonin will be measured and IL-6 obtained in patients in Category 2 or 3 disease severity. If measured for clinical purposes, LDH, troponin, procalcitonin, and IL-6 will be recorded for research purposes.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 300 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: randomized 1:1
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Open-Label Trial of Therapeutic Anticoagulation in COVID-19 Patients With an Elevated D-Dimer
Estimated Study Start Date : May 15, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : January 1, 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 1, 2022

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Heparin

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Therapeutic Anticoagulation Group

Patients identified as eligible through discussions with the primary care team and review of the electronic medical record will be approached and consented as described above in "Subject Enrollment" and "Procedures for obtaining consent".

For research purposes, 20ml of blood will be drawn and stored for biobanking at the following timepoints: at baseline (i.e., after enrollment and before randomization), 5-7 days post-randomization, and on the day of discharge. The blood sample taken at baseline will also be used to conduct a pregnancy test for women of childbearing age.

After enrollment and blood collection, patients will then be randomized to therapeutic anticoagulation (LMWH for most subjects but UFH for those with morbid obesity or moderate to severe renal dysfunction as noted below) or standard of care anticoagulation. Those assigned to the therapeutic anticoagulation group will receive a higher dose of heparin.

Drug: Enoxaparin
Given the established link between endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular disease9, 10 and the association between coagulopathy and adverse outcomes in patients with sepsis11, the association between increased coagulation activity, end-organ injury, and mortality risk may represent a modifiable risk factor among COVID-19 patients with critical illness. Therefore, we propose to conduct a randomized, open-label trial of therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients with an elevated D-dimer to evaluate the efficacy. Most patients will receive low molecular weight heparin however, unfractionated heparin (UFH) will be administered for those with morbid obesity or moderate to severe renal dysfunction.
Other Names:
  • Heparin
  • Low molecular weight heparin

Active Comparator: Standard of Care Anticoagulation Group

Patients identified as eligible through discussions with the primary care team and review of the electronic medical record will be approached and consented as described above in "Subject Enrollment" and "Procedures for obtaining consent".

For research purposes, 20ml of blood will be drawn and stored for biobanking at the following timepoints: at baseline (i.e., after enrollment and before randomization), 5-7 days post-randomization, and on the day of discharge. The blood sample taken at baseline will also be used to conduct a pregnancy test for women of childbearing age.

After enrollment and blood collection, patients will then be randomized to therapeutic anticoagulation or standard of care anticoagulation. Those assigned to the standard of care anticoagulation group will receive the normal dose of heparin as per the Mass General guidelines.

Drug: Enoxaparin
Given the established link between endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular disease9, 10 and the association between coagulopathy and adverse outcomes in patients with sepsis11, the association between increased coagulation activity, end-organ injury, and mortality risk may represent a modifiable risk factor among COVID-19 patients with critical illness. Therefore, we propose to conduct a randomized, open-label trial of therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients with an elevated D-dimer to evaluate the efficacy. Most patients will receive low molecular weight heparin however, unfractionated heparin (UFH) will be administered for those with morbid obesity or moderate to severe renal dysfunction.
Other Names:
  • Heparin
  • Low molecular weight heparin




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of patients with the composite efficacy endpoint of death, cardiac arrest, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, or hemodynamic shock. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Aim 1 - Risk of death, cardiac arrest, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, or hemodynamic shock.

  2. Number of patients with a major bleeding event according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) definition. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Aim 2 - Risk of major bleeding event according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) definition.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion:

  • COVID-19 positive on admission or during hospitalization (having been tested within the past 5 days) with symptoms consistent with COVID-19 including fever (≥ 38C, 100.4F), pneumonia, symptoms of lower respiratory illness (e.g., cough, difficulty breathing), loss of smell or taste, myalgias, pharyngitis, or diarrhea
  • Admitted to the regular medical floor or intensive care unit (ICU) without severe ARDS (P/F ratio<100)
  • Elevated D-dimer (>1.5g/mL)
  • Age>18 years and not older than 90
  • Fibrinogen >100
  • Platelets >50,000
  • No prior intracranial hemorrhage or recent ischemic stroke or TIA within 6 months
  • D-dimer > 1500 ng/ml
  • No other clinical indication for therapeutic anticoagulation (e.g., deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE], atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndromes, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation)

Exclusion:

  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt DIC definition
  • Hemoglobin (Hgb) <8 g/dl
  • Hypersensitivity to heparin or heparin formulation including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
  • Thrombocytopenia: platelets<50,000 platelets/ul
  • Uncontrolled or active/recent bleeding including intracranial hemorrhage, signs of active bleeding (e.g., blood transfusion within 30 days), any GI bleed within the past 6 months, or internal bleeding within the past 1 month
  • High bleeding risk: significant closed-head or facial trauma within 3 months, traumatic or prolonged CPR (>10min), or use of dual anti-platelet therapy
  • Known or suspected pregnancy
  • Recent (<48 hours) or planned spinal or epidural anesthesia or puncture
  • If the patient is on other anticoagulants, antihistamines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. aspirin) or hydroxychloroquine
  • Uncontrolled hypertension

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04377997


Contacts
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Contact: Mazen Albaghdadi, MD 617-726-7400 MALBAGHDADI@mgh.harvard.edu
Contact: Jaclyn Pagliaro, MPH 617-726-1525 jaclyn.pagliaro@mgh.harvard.edu

Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Mazen Albaghdadi, MD Massachusetts General Hospital
Publications of Results:
C. P. COVID-19: Abnormal Clotting Common in More Severe Disease. 2020.
Safety of Heparin in Patients with Septic Shock.

Other Publications:
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Responsible Party: Mazen Albaghdadi, Interventional Cardiologist, Massachusetts General Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04377997    
Other Study ID Numbers: 2020P001136
First Posted: May 7, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 7, 2020
Last Verified: May 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Cardiovascular Diseases
Heparin
Calcium heparin
Enoxaparin
Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight
Tinzaparin
Dalteparin
Anticoagulants
Fibrinolytic Agents
Fibrin Modulating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action