Parental Stress During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Association With Depression and Anxiety
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04377074|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 6, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 6, 2020
This study seeks to investigate the levels of parental stress across different demographic subgroups in the general parental population during the strict social distancing government-initiated non-pharmacological interventions (NPI's) related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also seeks to examine the predictors of parental stress rates related to these non-pharmacological interventions (NPI's). In addition, the research will investigate the association between parental stress associated and psychopathology symptoms (i.e., depression and generalized anxiety).
The aim of the project is to:
- Inform the policymakers, the general public, scientists, and health practitioners about the psychological associations of the COVID-19-related government-initiated measures on parental stress, with special focus on the school and kindergarten lockdowns.
- Provide a foundation for policymakers and health-care professionals to employ interventions that protect families against possibly increased psychological stressors.
- Help policymakers and healthcare professionals to better understand the association of demographic variables and other predictors on parental stress and parent-child dysfunction, which information necessary for evaluating the psychological impact of NPIs on parental stress and thus the framework under which decisions about school/kindergarten lockdowns are made.
|Condition or disease|
|Parental Stress Depression Anxiety|
|Study Type :||Observational|
|Actual Enrollment :||2880 participants|
|Official Title:||Parenting in a Pandemic: Parental Stress During the COVID-19 and Its Association With Depression and Anxiety|
|Actual Study Start Date :||March 31, 2020|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||April 7, 2020|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||April 7, 2020|
- Measure of parental stress [ Time Frame: All data was collected between March 31st 2020 and April 7th 2020, a period where the NPIs (nonpharmacological interventions) against the COVID-19 pandemic were identical and constant in Norway ]Three items from the Danish Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was selected, which intends to be a short measure of perceived stress resulting from being a parent (Pontoppidan et al., 2018). The scale consists of nine items measuring parental stress where each is measured on a five-point Likert scale (1-5), with the scores ranging from 3 to 15. Higher scores indicate higher parental stress. The following three were chosen in this large-scale investigation: 1) I feel overwhelmed by the responsibility of being a parent. 2) The major source of stress in my life is my child(ren), and 3) It is difficult to balance different responsibilities because of my child(ren) (Pontoppidan et al., 2018).
- Patient Health Questionnaire 9 [ Time Frame: All data was collected between March 31st 2020 and April 7th 2020, a period where the NPIs (nonpharmacological interventions) against the COVID-19 pandemic were identical and constant in Norway ]The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer & Williams, 2001) is used to measure symptoms of depression in accordance with the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder. The questionnaire consists of nine items where each is scored on a four-point Likert scale (0-3), with the range of scores from 0 to 27. Higher scores indicate greater depression severity, and scores above 10 are considered as the cut-off that indicating that the patient is within the depressive area.
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 [ Time Frame: All data was collected between March 31st 2020 and April 7th 2020, a period where the NPIs (nonpharmacological interventions) against the COVID-19 pandemic were identical and constant in Norway ]The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7; Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams & Löwe, 2006) is a questionnaire consisting of seven items measuring symptoms of anxiety and worry. The items are scored on a four-point Likert scale (0-3), with the scores ranging from 0 to 21. Higher scores indicate greater anxiety severity, and scores that are above the cutoff of 10 are considered to be in the clinical range (Spitzer et al., 2006). Specific cut-off for Norwegian samples have been found yielding a cut-off of 8 and above for high sensitivity and specificity (Johnson, Ulvenes, Øktedalen & Hoffart, 2019).
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04377074
|University of Oslo|
|Principal Investigator:||Miriam Sinkerud Johnson, PhD||Oslo Metropolitan University|
|Principal Investigator:||Nora Paulsen Skjerdingstad||University of Bergen|
|Principal Investigator:||Omid Ebrahimi||University of Oslo & Modum Bad|
|Principal Investigator:||Asle Hoffart, PhD||Modum Bad & University of Oslo|
|Principal Investigator:||Sverre Urnes Johnson, PhD||University of Oslo & Modum Bad|