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Using Early Time Restricted Feeding and Timed Light Therapy to Improve Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04155619
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : November 7, 2019
Last Update Posted : November 7, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Courtney M Peterson, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to test whether eating earlier in the day and/or timed light therapy can improve blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. This study will also test whether these treatments improve other aspects of health, including the circadian (biological) clock, sleep, weight, body composition, cardiovascular health, quality of life, and mood.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Time Restricted Feeding Light; Therapy, Complications Behavioral: No change in meal timing Behavioral: No change in light exposure Behavioral: Early Time-Restricted Feeding Behavioral: Timed Light Therapy Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The circadian system is strongly linked to type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes have circadian rhythms that are both weakened and mistimed. Weak rhythms may be due to insufficient bright light exposure during the daytime, irregular meal timing, or grazing on food throughout the day. Mistiming may be due to ill-timed food intake or light exposure—such as eating later in the day or light exposure at night—which causes central and peripheral circadian clocks within the body to become out of sync (circadian misalignment). This circadian misalignment impairs glucose metabolism: data now show that eating late in the day and light exposure at night rapidly elevate glucose (blood sugar) and insulin levels in humans within days. Conversely, well-timed food intake and light exposure appear to improve glycemic (blood sugar) control, circadian rhythms, and several other aspects of health.

This study will test the health effects of eating early in the daytime (early time-restricted feeding; early TRF) and timed light therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes. The study will test the following aims:

  1. Determine whether early TRF and/or timed light therapy improve glycemic control
  2. (a) Determine how early TRF and/or timed light therapy affect the central and peripheral circadian clocks and (b) determine which patients benefit the most from circadian-based therapies
  3. Determine whether early TRF and/or timed light therapy improve sleep, body weight, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life, and psychological health.

Approximately 344 veterans and civilians aged 30-80 with insulin-independent type 2 diabetes will be randomized to the following 2 x 2 study design:

  1. No change in eating or light exposure habits
  2. Early TRF
  3. Timed light therapy
  4. Early TRF and timed light therapy

Participants will be asked to follow their assigned treatment for 16 weeks and then be followed up for an additional eight months (1 year in total). Baseline and post-intervention testing will be conducted during a 38-hour inpatient (hospital) stay. Testing will involve three 3-hour meal tolerance tests to determine insulin sensitivity and secretion; 24-hour measurement of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels; 24-hour measurement of cortisol and melatonin to measure the phase and amplitude of the central clock; and a constant glucose infusion to determine the phase and amplitude of the effective glycemic ("peripheral") circadian clock. Sleep, weight loss, body composition, and cardiovascular risk factors will also be measured, and questionnaires and an interview will be administered to determine improvements in quality of life and psychological health.

Note: Pre-registered primary and secondary outcomes are listed below. Pre-registered tertiary outcomes appear in the study protocol, which will be uploaded to this website.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 344 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Investigator)
Masking Description: The study statistician will be blinded. To the degree possible for each task, other study staff will be blinded during outcome assessments and analysis.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Using Early Time Restricted Feeding and Timed Light Therapy to Improve Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes
Estimated Study Start Date : February 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : March 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2023

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: No change in eating or light exposure habits Behavioral: No change in meal timing
Participants will eat within an ≥11-hour daily period (no change in meal timing habits).

Behavioral: No change in light exposure
Participants will not change their light exposure habits.

Experimental: Early Time-Restricted Feeding Behavioral: No change in light exposure
Participants will not change their light exposure habits.

Behavioral: Early Time-Restricted Feeding
Participants will eat within an 8-hour daily period early in the day, starting within 2 hours of waking up.
Other Name: eTRF, early TRF

Experimental: Timed Light Therapy Behavioral: No change in meal timing
Participants will eat within an ≥11-hour daily period (no change in meal timing habits).

Behavioral: Timed Light Therapy
Participants will use bright light therapy for 60 minutes between 6 am - 3 pm, blue light-blocking glasses for one hour before bedtime, and blackout curtains at night.
Other Name: Bright Light Therapy

Experimental: Early Time-Restricted Feeding and Timed Light Therapy Behavioral: Early Time-Restricted Feeding
Participants will eat within an 8-hour daily period early in the day, starting within 2 hours of waking up.
Other Name: eTRF, early TRF

Behavioral: Timed Light Therapy
Participants will use bright light therapy for 60 minutes between 6 am - 3 pm, blue light-blocking glasses for one hour before bedtime, and blackout curtains at night.
Other Name: Bright Light Therapy




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. 24-hour glucose levels [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Time-weighted mean, fasting, peak, standard deviation, and excursion (maximum - minimum) values (mg/dl)

  2. 24-hour insulin levels [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Time-weighted mean, fasting, peak, standard deviation, and excursion values (mU/l)

  3. 24-hour C-peptide levels [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Time-weighted mean, fasting, peak, standard deviation, and excursion values (pmol/l). This is also a proxy for total 24-hour insulin secretion.

  4. Hemoglobin A1C [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
  5. Insulin sensitivity [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Insulin sensitivity (dl/kg/min/μU/ml) during three identical meal tolerance tests, as measured by the Oral Minimal Model. The individual, mean, and excursion values, and time of the peak value will also be calculated.

  6. Beta-cell responsivity index (a measure of beta-cell function) [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Beta-cell responsivity during three identical meal tolerance tests, as measured by the Oral Minimal Model. The individual, mean, and excursion values, and time of the peak value will also be calculated.

  7. Insulin secretion [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Insulin secretion (mU) across three identical meal tolerance tests, as measured by the Oral Minimal Model. The individual, mean, and excursion values, and time of the peak value will also be calculated.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Melatonin Amplitude [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Peak value (pg/mL)

  2. Cortisol Amplitude [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Ampitude (μg/dl)

  3. Melatonin Phase [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Clock time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO)

  4. Cortisol Phase [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Clock time of cortisol phase

  5. Glycemic ("Peripheral") Rhythm Amplitude [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Amplitude or diurnal variation in glucose levels (mg/dl) during a constant glucose infusion procedure

  6. Glycemic ("Peripheral") Rhythm Phase [ Time Frame: 16 weeks ]
    Time of day that glucose levels experience a nadir during a constant glucose infusion procedure



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   30 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Aged 30-80 years old
  • HbA1c between 7.0 - 10.0%
  • On a stable dose of metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP-IV inhibitors, and/or GLP-1 receptor agonists for at least 6 months, or taking no diabetes medications
  • Stable values of HbA1c for the past 6 months (within 0.7%)
  • Wake up at a regular time between 5-9 am

Exclusion Criteria:

  • On insulin or diabetes medication other than metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP-IV inhibitors, and/or GLP-1 receptor agonists
  • Have type 1 diabetes or was diagnosed with diabetes before age 18
  • Moderate or severe retinopathy or other medical condition that may affect the ability to safely receive bright light therapy
  • A history of severe hypoglycemia
  • Change in the dosage of a chronic medication within the past 2 months
  • Have a clinically significant laboratory abnormality (e.g., abnormal hemoglobin levels)
  • Severe gastrointestinal disease, major gastrointestinal surgery, or gallstones
  • Cardiovascular, renal, cardiac, liver, lung, adrenal, or nervous system disease that is unstable or may compromise study validity
  • Evidence of cancer (other than non-melanoma skin cancer) within the last 5 years
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Current diagnosis of a major psychiatric condition that would impair study participation
  • Diagnosed sleep disorder or circadian disorder that is not stabilized
  • Spend an average of more than 1.5 hours/day outdoors
  • Perform overnight shift work more than 1 day/week on average
  • Regularly eat within a less than a 10-hour period daily
  • Regularly finish eating dinner before 5:30 pm
  • Lost or gained more than 3 kg (6.6 lbs) of weight in the past 3 months
  • Traveled more than two times zones away in the two months prior to enrolling in the trial or will travel more than two time zones away during the 16-week study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04155619


Contacts
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Contact: Courtney Peterson, Ph.D. 205-934-0122 cpeterso@uab.edu
Contact: Ralee' Bunt, B.S. 205-975-3944 erikabunt@uabmc.edu

Locations
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United States, Alabama
University of Alabama at Birmingham; Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center Not yet recruiting
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35294
Contact: Courtney M Peterson, Ph.D.         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Courtney Peterson, Ph.D. University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Responsible Party: Courtney M Peterson, Principal Investigator, University of Alabama at Birmingham
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04155619     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB-300003964
First Posted: November 7, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 7, 2019
Last Verified: November 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases