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Tofacitinib in Depression (TIDE) (TIDE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04141904
Recruitment Status : Suspended (Covid-19 pandemic)
First Posted : October 28, 2019
Last Update Posted : November 4, 2020
Wellcome Trust
Medical Research Council
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Philip John Cowen, University of Oxford

Brief Summary:
This study will test whether 7-10 day administration of the anti-inflammatory drug, tofacitinib, has positive effects on people experiencing treatment-resistant depression compared to placebo.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Depression Inflammation Drug: Tofacitinib 5 MG [Xeljanz] Other: Placebo Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:
This study uses a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised between groups design to test the hypothesis that, compared to placebo, 7-10 days' administration of tofacitinib 5mg twice daily has positive effects on emotional and reward processing in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and elevated C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of inflammation). Patients will have been diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 and will have shown non-response to at least 2 adequate antidepressant trials.They will also have a plasma hs-CRP of 1mg/L or greater. During the study patients will continue their antidepressant treatment. Participants will be randomised to receive 7-10 days treatment with either tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily or a matched placebo. This study includes three visits in total: a screening visit; research visit 1 (includes cognitive tests) and research visit 2 (to include an MRI scan as well as cognitive tests).

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 50 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Participants will be randomly allocated to one of two groups (tofacitinib or placebo) and take the assigned medication for 7-10 days
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: The Effects of the Anti-inflammatory Drug, Tofacitinib on Emotional and Reward Processing in Patients With Treatment-resistant Depression and Elevated High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein
Actual Study Start Date : February 10, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : September 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Tofacitinib
Tofacitinib 5mg capsule twice a day for 7-10 days
Drug: Tofacitinib 5 MG [Xeljanz]
Tofacitinib 5mg capsules twice a day for 7-10 days

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo capsule twice a day for 7-10 days
Other: Placebo
Placebo capsules twice a day for 7-10 days

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. The effects of tofacitinib on emotional processing using the Facial Expression Recognition Task (FERT) [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Accuracy and reaction times on computer-based tasks of emotional processing using facial expressions of basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise) are displayed on the screen and participants are asked to correctly classify them. Each emotion is presented at different intensity levels. Responses are made via a button-press and accuracy and reaction time are recorded

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. The effects of tofacitinib on Emotional Memory Task (EMEM) scores [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Recall and recognition of affective words displayed earlier in the testing session is tested

  2. Emotional categorization using the Emotional categorization task (ECAT) [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Disagreeable or agreeable personality descriptions are presented and participants are asked to indicate whether they would like or dislike to be described as each of these characteristics. Responses are made via a button-press.

  3. Emotional recall task (EREC) [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Participants are asked to write down as many of the words as they can remember from the previous task. Responses are made via pencil and paper.

  4. Brain neural activity [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    BOLD fMRI at resting state and during the performance of an emotional (i.e. covert facial expression processing) and a reward (i.e. adapted probabilistic instrumental learning) processing tasks.

  5. Faces dot probe task (FDOT) [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Participants carry out computer-based tasks and attentional vigilance to happy or fearful faces is recorded from participants' response latency to indicate the alignment of a dot probe appearing in the place of one of the faces

  6. Probabilistic Instrumental Learning Task (PILT) [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Participants have to learn which shapes are associated with wins and losses and sensitivity to reward is measured.

  7. Auditory Verbal Learning Task (AVLT) [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Accuracy of recall on the auditory verbal learning task

  8. The effects of tofacitinib on cerebral perfusion [ Time Frame: Day 7-10 of drug/placebo administration ]
    Arterial spin labelling at rest to measure cerebral perfusion

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female;
  • Aged 18-65 years;
  • Willing and able to give informed consent for participation in the study;
  • Sufficiently fluent English to understand and complete the tasks;
  • Registered with a GP and consents to GP being informed of participation in the study;
  • Participants need to meet a number of concurrent clinical criteria:
  • Current criteria for Major Depressive Disorder [as determined by the Structured Clinical interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5)];
  • Inadequate response to at least two adequate courses of antidepressant therapy each given at a therapeutic dose for at least four weeks;
  • Baseline elevated inflammation [as determined by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) of 1mg/L or greater [~70% of patients expected to be above (estimated from Chamberlain-2018)];
  • Participants engaging in sex with a risk of pregnancy must agree to use a highly effective method of contraception from Screening Visit until 30 days after receiving the study medication treatment. Acceptable methods of contraception include:
  • Combined (estrogen- and progestogen-containing) hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation: oral, intravaginal or transdermal;
  • Progestogen-only hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation: oral, injectable or implantable;
  • Intrauterine device (IUD);
  • Intrauterine hormone-releasing system (IUS);
  • Bilateral tubal occlusion;
  • Vasectomy (or vasectomised partner);
  • Condoms +/- spermicides;
  • Sexual abstinence. [Periodic abstinence (calendar, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods), withdrawal (coitus interruptus), and spermicides only are not acceptable methods of contraception.]
  • Male participants must not donate sperm

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of /or current DSM-5 bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.
  • Current DSM-5 eating disorder.
  • Participants who fulfil current criteria for other comorbid disorders may still be entered into the study, if, in the opinion of the Investigator, the psychiatric diagnosis will not compromise safety or affect data quality;
  • Participants currently taking strong cytochrome P450 (CYPs) 3A4 inhibitors (e.g. fluvoxamine)
  • Electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of the current episode of depression;
  • Clinically significant abnormal values for full blood count, urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, blood pressure, or ECG. A participant with a clinical abnormality or parameters outside the reference range for the population being studied may be included only if the Investigator considers that the finding is unlikely to introduce additional risk factors and will not interfere with the study procedures;
  • Participants who are positive for blood-borne viruses (HIV/HepB/HepC);
  • Participants who are positive to tuberculosis' screening test (T-SPOT.TB +);
  • Participants receiving or planning to receive a live vaccine within 4 weeks of study treatment; if the patient is due an influenza vaccine, this should be rescheduled to 2 weeks after the study.
  • History of significant alcohol/substance misuse or dependence over the past 6 months;
  • History of, or current medical conditions that in the opinion of the Investigator may interfere with the safety of the participant or the scientific integrity of the study, including recurrent infections (e.g. sinusitis, genital herpes simplex, or herpes zoster), malignancies (except for successfully treated non-melanoma skin cancer or localised carcinoma in situ of the cervix), severe neurological problems (e.g. Parkinson's disease; blackouts requiring hospitalization, epilepsy/seizures, stroke, other brain injury), severe cardiovascular disorder (e.g. moderate-severe congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, coronary stenting, uncontrolled hypertension systolic >160 mmHg or diastolic >100 mmHg, unprovoked deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism), severe haematological disorder (e.g. total white blood cell count <3,000/μL, absolute neutrophil count <1,500/μL, platelet count <100,000/μL, absolute lymphocyte count <800/μL, hemoglobin <10 g/dL), severe hepatic disease (e.g. serum alanine transaminase (ALT) >2 × upper limit of normal), significant renal disease (e.g. estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by simplified 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula > 40 mL/min/1.73m2), severe gastro-intestinal problems (e.g. diverticulitis, previous perforation or high risk of perforation, conditions that could interfere with drug absorption including but not limited to short bowel syndrome); previous organ transplant;
  • Clinically significant risk of suicide;
  • Current pregnancy (as determined by urine pregnancy test taken during the Screening Visit and the Research Visit One), breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy during the course of the study;
  • Participants with Body Mass Index (BMI - kg/m2) outside the 18-36 range at Screening Visit;
  • Participants with severe claustrophobia;
  • Participants with ferromagnetic objects in their bodies (e.g. metal implants, vessel clips, shrapnel injuries) or with implanted devices which may be damaged by the magnet (e.g. heart pacemakers);
  • Previous participation in a study using the same, or similar, emotional or reward processing tasks;
  • Previous participation in a psychological or medical study involving the use of medication within the last 3 months;
  • Participant received non-prescription medication, including supplements such as vitamins and herbal supplements within 48 hours prior to the Research Visit One (apart from paracetamol). Participants who have taken non-prescription medication may still be entered into the study, if, in the opinion of the Investigator, the medication received will not interfere with the study procedures or compromise safety;
  • Participant with a known hypersensitivity to tofacitinib;
  • Participant with planned medical treatment within the study period that might interfere with the study procedures;
  • Participant who is unlikely to comply with the clinical study protocol or is unsuitable for any other reason, in the opinion of the Investigator.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT04141904

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United Kingdom
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford
Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, OX3 7JX
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Oxford
Wellcome Trust
Medical Research Council
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Principal Investigator: Philip J Cowen University of Oxford
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Responsible Party: Philip John Cowen, Professor, University of Oxford Identifier: NCT04141904    
Other Study ID Numbers: 19/SC/0136
First Posted: October 28, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 4, 2020
Last Verified: November 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Keywords provided by Philip John Cowen, University of Oxford:
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Depressive Disorder
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders
Pathologic Processes
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action