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Evaluation of Link for Equity (School Staff Population)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04026477
Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : July 19, 2019
Last Update Posted : August 15, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute

Brief Summary:
The investigators propose to develop and evaluate Link for Equity, a trauma-informed system of care. Link, a system of support for ACE-affected children, is composed of universal school Trauma-Informed Care. Preventing Racism through Awareness and Action (PRAA) is a perspective-taking racism/discrimination prevention intervention for school staff that increases awareness of racism and how it impacts students and promotes empathy for students of color. Link for Equity will be translated to be culturally responsive for 12 secondary public schools in metropolitan and rural Minnesota with substantial racial/ethnic minority students and racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline and violence. Using a nested, rigorous, and ethically acceptable randomized waitlist control design, the investigators will implement and evaluate Link for Equity sequentially for two years in each school. The overall goal is to evaluate if Link for Equity can reduce school violence disparities.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Behavior Behavioral: Immediate Universal Trauma-Informed Care and Cultural Humility Training Behavioral: Waitlisted Universal Trauma-Informed Care and Cultural Humility Training Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Significance of Research Question/Purpose: Youth violence is an emergent nationwide public health issue. Almost two-thirds of public schools across America report one or more violent incidents on their campus annually. In 2014, approximately 850,000 non-fatal victimizations occurred among 12-18 year-old students; this includes 486,400 assaults and serious violent victimizations. About 22% of children in the U.S. reported being bullied at school in 2011, and one in 10 students report being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the past year.

Racial/ethnic minority youth are at increased risk for school violence. African American, Latino, and American Indian youth report higher rates of in-school physical fighting, weapon carrying, and gang presence compared to white youth. The highest rates of severe violence are reported in urban high schools with high minority enrollment, and large samples and reviews indicate Black and Latino youth engage in more bullying than other racial groups.

Accumulation of adverse child experiences (ACEs), or childhood traumas such as abuse, neglect, household dysfunction, and racial discrimination, place children at high risk for violent behaviors. Multiple ACEs are more prevalent among American Indian (40%), Hispanic (31%) and black children (33%) compared with white children (21%). ACEs have acute and cumulative detrimental impacts on the physiological, cognitive, behavioral and psychological health of children, and children with increased ACEs are more likely to engage in violent behaviors at school.

For example, the Olweus Anti-bullying Program, which was shown to be effective in Norway yet ineffective among Washington's racial/ethnic minority students, is implemented widely. A number of gaps in addressing risks for youth violence remain. Many programs are limited to didactic instruction in the classroom, or solely target children with significant behavioral concerns. Systems-based approaches are the most promising sustainable models because they capitalize on infrastructures and services offered at school. This study will evaluate a systems-based model, Link for Equity. Link is combines Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) and psychological first aid in a culturally sensitive manner. Link for Equity offers cultural humility training that specifically targets racial/ethnic microaggressions to prevent racial discrimination in discipline referrals of racial and ethnic minority students.

The aims are to:

Aim 1: Adapt, implement, and measure the effect of Link for Equity on school violence disparities.

Aim 2: Measure the effect of Link for Equity on racial discrimination by teachers (2a), and assess if teachers' racial discrimination mediates the effect of Link for Equity on school violence (2b).

Aim 3: Explore connectedness and stress mechanisms through which Link for Equity impacts school violence disparities.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 600 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Evaluation of Link for Equity: A Program to Reduce Racial/Ethnic School Violence Disparities (School Staff Population)
Actual Study Start Date : August 1, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2023

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Immediate intervention group
Universal Trauma-Informed Care and Cultural Humility Training. After video and workshop training, staff will have ability to recognize trauma and racism and its impact on school procedures, practices, and children themselves. Staff will be able to apply core principles of cultural humility. Staff will examine their own cultural identity and how it influences their interactions and relationships with students of diverse cultural backgrounds (Principle 1). Staff will learn ways that privilege and oppression relate to their cultural identity and identify ways to flatten power hierarchies between themselves and students, including handling misbehavior from a trauma-informed, culturally humble perspective (Principle 2). Staff will problem-solve ways for their schools to be accountable for equitable discipline practices (Principle 3).
Behavioral: Immediate Universal Trauma-Informed Care and Cultural Humility Training
Instructional video and workshop

Active Comparator: Waitlist control group
All staff from waitlisted schools will receive Universal Trauma-Informed Care and Cultural Humility Training at the end of the waitlist period.
Behavioral: Waitlisted Universal Trauma-Informed Care and Cultural Humility Training
Instructional video and workshop following waitlist period

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Color Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) Score [ Time Frame: baseline and 2 years ]
    This is a 20-item scale that measures denial of racism and white privilege and rejection of the belief that action is needed to eradicate the negative consequences of racism. Items are scored on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). Total scores are calculated by summing scores from all 20 items. Possible total scores range from 20-120 with higher scores indicating a stronger attitude of color-blindness. Change in CoBRAS score from baseline to two years post will be evaluated.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Employees of the participating school districts
  • Willingness to complete study surveys

Exclusion Criteria:

  • School staff not employees of the participating school districts
  • School staff who refuse to complete study procedures

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT04026477

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United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55455
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute

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Responsible Party: University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute Identifier: NCT04026477     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: LinkEquitySchoolStaff
First Posted: July 19, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 15, 2019
Last Verified: August 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No