Metabolic Abnormalities, Lifestyle and Diet Pattern in Heart Failure (MALD-HF)
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Metabolic abnormalities (e.g., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity) and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., smoking and drinking habits, sedentary behavior, sleep disorder and physical inactivity) and unhealthy diet (e.g., high sugar and high fat) are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases mobility and mortality. The investigators sought to estimate the impact of metabolic abnormalities, lifestyle behavior and diet pattern on prognosis of heart failure. This study planned to consecutively enroll 1,500 participants with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Each heart failure survivors will be followed up for 5-10 years. Information on metabolic diseases, lifestyle and diet pattern were obtained through standardized questionnaire. The major adverse cardiac events will be identified by reviewing pertinent medical records and discharge lists from the hospitals, or official death certificates collected at local death registration centers, or directly contacting participants' family. The Cox proportional hazard model will be used to assess the association between metabolic risk factors and lifestyle and diet habits and health outcomes in heart failure patients.
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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years to 90 Years (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Hospitalized patients diagnosed with heart failure who had impaired cardiac function or abnormal cardiac structure with elevated blood BNP concentrations
(1) aged 18 and above; (2) symptoms with or without signs of congestive heart failure (pulmonary edema, pulmonary congestion or peripheral edema); (3) elevated blood natriuretic peptide levels (BNP ≥35pg/mL or NT-proBNP≥125pg/mL); (4) Impaired cardiac function diagnosed by cardiac imaging tests (e.g., echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance); (5) a: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%; or LVEF>40% with structural change (e.g., left ventricle hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement or diastolic dysfunction).
Inability to complete the baseline questionnaires or follow-up investigations or refusal to provide informed consent