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De-Escalation Therapy for Human Papillomavirus Negative Disease (DEPEND)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03944915
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : May 10, 2019
Last Update Posted : June 6, 2022
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Chicago

Brief Summary:
This study is looking to see if nivolumab, an immunotherapy drug, given with carboplatin and paclitaxel (2 chemotherapy agents) during induction therapy in advanced stage HPV negative patients can significantly shrink the subject's cancer.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Human Papilloma Virus Squamous Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck HPV-Related Squamous Cell Carcinoma HNSCC Drug: Carboplatin Drug: Paclitaxel Drug: Nivolumab Radiation: Radiation Drug: Hydroxyurea Pill Drug: 5-fluorouracil Drug: Filgrastim Injection Drug: Cisplatin Phase 2

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 36 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II Trial of Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, and Nivolumab Induction Therapy Followed by Response-stratified Locoregional Therapy for Patients With Locally Advanced, HPV-negative Head and Neck Cancer. The DEPEND Trial.
Actual Study Start Date : August 26, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 1, 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 1, 2024

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: ARM 1
Induction Therapy
Drug: Carboplatin
Carboplatin will be given through IV infusions for 30-60 minutes on day 1 of each cycle. Each cycle will last 21 days. There will be 3 cycles.

Drug: Paclitaxel

During Induction Therapy Paclitaxel (100 mg) will be given through IV infusions on days 1, 8 and 15 of each 21 day cycle. There will be 3 cycles.

During Radiotherapy, paclitaxel will be given after a dose of radiation by IV infusion for 60 minutes after day 1 of radiotherapy.


Drug: Nivolumab
Nivolumab will be given through IV infusions at 360 mg on day 1 every 21 days for 3 cycles.

Experimental: ARM 2
Radiation therapy with chemotherapy
Drug: Paclitaxel

During Induction Therapy Paclitaxel (100 mg) will be given through IV infusions on days 1, 8 and 15 of each 21 day cycle. There will be 3 cycles.

During Radiotherapy, paclitaxel will be given after a dose of radiation by IV infusion for 60 minutes after day 1 of radiotherapy.


Radiation: Radiation
Patients will receive 4.5-5 cycles of radiation depending on response. Those with a positive response will receive radiation for 4.5 cycles with a total radiation dose of 66 Gy. Patients with a moderate or no response will receive 5 cycles with a total radiation dose of 70-75 Gy. 2 times a day for days 1-5 followed by a rest period for days 6-13

Drug: Hydroxyurea Pill
One dose of hydroxyurea pill by mouth at start of 5-FU infusion during radiotherapy cycle

Drug: 5-fluorouracil
5-FU will be given by IV infusion continuously for 5 days during radiotherapy cycles
Other Name: 5-FU

Drug: Filgrastim Injection
Filgrastim shot will be given if patient has certain side effects during radiotherapy cycle on days 6-12.
Other Name: Filgrastim shot

Drug: Cisplatin
Radiotherapy may also be given with a different chemotherapy agent called cisplatin. This is the traditional standard of care chemotherapy regimen. In this case, the radiotherapy will be given once daily for 5 days per week. Cisplatin will be administered via IV once every 21 days for 2 or 3 cycles.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Deep Response Rate (DRR) [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    DRR is 50% or greater response to induction therapy based on RECIST criteria. The objective is to intensify induction chemotherapy with the addition of an immune checkpoint inhibitor aimed at increasing the proportion of patients achieving a deep tumor response in order to subsequently allow risk-adapted definitive chemoradiotherapy in advanced stage HPV negative head and neck squamous cell cancer patients.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression Free Survival rate (PFS) [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    Progression free survival at 24 months after completing chemoradiation. PFS will be defined as the time from registration to the date of the first documented disease progression, clinical progression, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first.

  2. Overall Survival rate (OS) [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    Overall survival will be defined as the time between the date of registration and the date of death.

  3. Locoregional control after completing chemoradiation [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    assess disease control in all patients receiving induction chemoimmunotherapy and compare disease control between radiation arms.

  4. Distant control after completing chemoradiation [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    Distant control will be defined as the time from registration to the date of the first documented disease progression below the clavicles. Comparison between the two radiation arms will be made.


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Acute and late toxicity during treatment [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Assess long term and late toxicities in all patients receiving induction therapy and risk-adapted chemoradiotherapy after deep response to induction therapy. Acute and late toxicities will be defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Comparisons will be made using Fisher's exact test. Acute and late toxicity during treatment and at 1 month, 3 months and 1 year post chemoradiation

  2. Enteral tube dependency [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Enteral tube dependency will be defined as continued necessity of any nutrition through enteral tube to maintain weight. The incidence of enteral tube dependency will be described within the safety population and among each radiation treatment. Comparisons will be made using Fisher's exact test.

  3. Performance Standard Scale for Head and Neck (PSS_HN) Quality of life assessments [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    Evaluate quality of life in response in patients who receive dose reduced chemoradiotherapy after a deep response to induction therapy. Quality of life assessments will be measured in the safety population. Results will be tabulated and compared using the Fisher's exact test. Overall and domain subset scores of the Performance Standard Scale for Head and Neck (PSS_HN) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale Head and Neck quality of life assessments

  4. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale Head and Neck Quality of life assessments [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    Evaluate quality of life in response in patients who receive dose reduced chemoradiotherapy after a deep response to induction therapy. Quality of life assessments will be measured in the safety population. Results will be tabulated and compared using the Fisher's exact test. Overall and domain subset scores of the Performance Standard Scale for Head and Neck (PSS_HN) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale Head and Neck quality of life assessments

  5. Immunohistological biomarkers [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    Interrogate and understand the immune micro-environment at baseline 2-3 weeks into induction therapy with extensive immunohistological and serum biomarkers. Use biomarker data and efficacy data. These exploratory predictive biomarker analyses will be completed with biomarkers measured in the blood and in tumor samples obtained prior to and near completion of induction therapy. The main tumor biomarkers measured will be PD-L1, tumor mutation burden, and T-cell activated gene signatures. The relationship between measures will be investigated using logistic regression.

  6. Serum biomarkers [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    Interrogate and understand the immune micro-environment at baseline 2-3 weeks into induction therapy with extensive immunohistological and serum biomarkers. Use biomarker data and efficacy data. These exploratory predictive biomarker analyses will be completed with biomarkers measured in the blood and in tumor samples obtained prior to and near completion of induction therapy. The main tumor biomarkers measured will be PD-L1, tumor mutation burden, and T-cell activated gene signatures. The relationship between measures will be investigated using logistic regression.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients must have pathologically confirmed locally advanced, non-metastatic, HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, or sinuses.
  2. Stage IV disease with the exception of nasopharyngeal tumor-3, node-2 (stage III) based of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging 8th edition
  3. If a primary oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is diagnosed, HPV must be ruled out by immunohistochemistry.
  4. Availability of ≥10 unstained 5 micron slides. Patients who cannot fulfill this requirement will need to undergo a new biopsy prior to enrollment on study.
  5. Patients must be at least 18 years of age.
  6. Measurable disease (either primary site and/or nodal disease) by RECIST criteria.
  7. No previous radiation or chemotherapy for a head and neck cancer.
  8. No complete surgical resection for a head and neck cancer within 8 weeks of enrollment (although lymph node biopsy including excision of an individual node with presence of residual nodal disease, or surgical biopsy/excision of the tumor with residual measurable disease is acceptable.) No surgical procedures or biopsies will occur after baseline scans are performed and measurable lesions are identified.
  9. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1
  10. Normal Organ Function

    1. Leukocytes ≥ 3000/mm3
    2. Platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3
    3. Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,500
    4. Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 gm/dL
    5. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) ≤ 2.5x upper limit of normal
    6. Alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2.5x upper limit of normal
    7. Albumin > 2.9 gm/dL
    8. Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 mg/dL
    9. Creatinine clearance > 45 mL/min, normal within 2 weeks prior to start of treatment (Of note, the standard Cockcroft and Gault formula must be used to calculate creatinine clearance (CrCl) for enrollment or dosing)
  11. Patients must sign a study-specific informed consent form prior to study entry. Patients should have the ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.
  12. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test (minimum sensitivity 25 IU/L or equivalent units of HCG) within 24 hours prior to the start of study drug
  13. Women must not be breastfeeding
  14. Women of childbearing potential must agree to follow instructions for method(s) of contraception for the duration of treatment with study drug(s) plus 6 months after completing chemoradiation or receiving the last dose of consolidative nivolumab, whichever occurs latest.
  15. Men who are sexually active with women of childbearing potential must agree to follow instructions for method(s) of contraception for the duration of treatment with study drug(s) plus 6 months after completing chemoradiation or receiving the last dose of consolidative nivolumab, whichever occurs latest.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Unequivocal demonstration of distant metastatic disease (M1 disease).
  2. Unidentifiable primary site.
  3. Inter-current medical illnesses which would impair patient tolerance to therapy or limit survival. This includes but is not limited to ongoing or active infection, immunodeficiency, symptomatic congestive heart failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance. Patients with clinically stable and/or chronically managed medical illnesses that are not symptomatic and/or are not expected to impact treatment on protocol are still eligible (conditions to be reviewed by the PI to confirm eligibility)
  4. Prior surgical therapy other than incisional/excisional biopsy or organ-sparing procedures such as debulking of airway-compromising tumors. Residual measurable tumor is required for enrollment as discussed above.
  5. Patients receiving other investigational agents.
  6. Diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroid therapy in excess of physiologic dose or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of trial treatment.
  7. Known history of active tuberculosis (Bacillus Tuberculosis infection).
  8. Hypersensitivity to nivolumab or any other drug used in this protocol.
  9. Prior systemic anti-cancer treatment within the last 8 weeks.
  10. Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has undergone potentially curative therapy or in situ cervical cancer or any tumors that are not likely to influence life expectancy in the subsequent 3 years without active treatment.
  11. Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic therapy in the past year (i.e. with steroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy e.g. levothyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid doses for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc. are not considered a form of systemic treatment.
  12. Has known history of, or any evidence of active, non-infectious pneumonitis.
  13. Has a history of HIV.
  14. Has known active Hepatitis B or hepatitis C. If eradicated, patient is eligible.
  15. Has received a live vaccine within 28 days of planned start of study therapy.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03944915


Contacts
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Contact: Everett Vokes, MD 773-702-9306 evokes@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu

Locations
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United States, Illinois
University Of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center Recruiting
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60637
Contact: Everett Vokes, MD    773-702-9306    evokes@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu   
Principal Investigator: Everett Vokes, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Chicago
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Everett Vokes, MD University of Chicago
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Responsible Party: University of Chicago
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03944915    
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB19-0162
First Posted: May 10, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 6, 2022
Last Verified: June 2022

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
Papilloma
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Squamous Cell
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Paclitaxel
Cisplatin
Carboplatin
Fluorouracil
Nivolumab
Hydroxyurea
Lenograstim
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Agents
Tubulin Modulators
Antimitotic Agents
Mitosis Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antimetabolites
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors