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Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Psychiatric Health in Patients With Bipolar or Schizophrenia Illness

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03935854
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 2, 2019
Last Update Posted : December 8, 2022
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Shebani Sethi, Stanford University

Brief Summary:
To initiate a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) or ketogenic dietary (KD) intervention among a cohort of outpatients with either schizophrenia or bipolar illness who also have metabolic abnormalities, overweight/obesity, and/or are currently taking psychotropic medications experiencing metabolic side effects.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Obesity Ketogenic Dieting Metabolic Syndrome Bipolar Disorder Schizophrenia Weight Gain Psychotropic Agents Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use Brain Metabolic Disorder Other: LCHF, Ketogenic Diet Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Adults with mental illness represent a high-risk, marginalized group in the current metabolic and obesity epidemic. Among US adults with severe mental illness, metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent conditions having severe consequences, with patients estimated to die on average 25 years earlier than the general population largely of premature cardiovascular disease. Many psychiatric medications, particularly neuroleptics and mood stabilizers, may, in addition, contribute to metabolic side effects and weight gain. Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) or ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk in those with insulin resistance. Recent findings support the idea that bipolar disorder, along with other psychiatric diseases schizophrenia, may have roots of metabolic dysfunction: cerebral glucose hypometabolism, oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial and neurotransmitter dysfunction which has downstream effects on synapse connections. A KD diet provides alternative fuel to the brain aside from glucose and is believed to contain beneficial neuroprotective effects, including stabilization of brain networks, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. The purpose of this study is to evaluate both the metabolic and psychiatric outcomes with a KD diet in this psychiatric population.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 23 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Impact of A Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat, Ketogenic Diet on Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities and Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients With Bipolar or Schizophrenia Illness: A Pilot Trial
Actual Study Start Date : February 13, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 11, 2022
Actual Study Completion Date : August 11, 2022

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Schizophrenia

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Ketogenic Diet 16 Week Group
Patients follow ketogenic diet for 16 weeks, with monitoring of physical and psychological health and coaching support
Other: LCHF, Ketogenic Diet
Low Carbohydrate, Moderate Protein, High Fat Ketogenic Dietary Intervention 16 weeks

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in heart rate from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Heart rate recorded at 9 visits during study

  2. Change in blood pressure from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Blood pressure recorded at 9 visits during study

  3. Change in weight from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Weight recorded at 9 visits during study

  4. Change in waist circumference from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    waist circumference measured at 9 visits during study

  5. Change in visceral fat mass from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Body composition (SECA) recorded at 5 visits during study

  6. Change in body fat mass from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Body composition (SECA) recorded at 5 visits during study

  7. Percent Change in Hemoglobin A1c from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Hemoglobin A1c recorded at initial and final visits

  8. Change in insulin resistance measure (HOMA-IR) from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    HOMA-IR measured at initial and final visits

  9. Change in inflammatory marker (hsCRP) from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    hsCRP measured at initial and final visits

  10. Change in lipid profile TG (triglycerides) from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Lipid profile TG measured at initial and final visits

  11. Change in lipid profile small LDL (small dense LDL) from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Lipid profile small LDL measured at initial and final visits

  12. Change in lipid profile (HDL) from baseline [ Time Frame: Baseline,16 weeks ]
    Lipid profile HDL measured at initial and final visits

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Psychiatric Indices - Mood [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Mood Qualitative Score (Clinical Mood Monitoring) from baseline

  2. Psychiatric Indices- Clinical Global Impression [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Clinical Global Impression Scales (CGI) from baseline 1-7 scale. 1= not at all ill, 7= among the most extremely ill patients)

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder - GAD-7 Anxiety [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Generalized Anxiety Symptom (GAD-7) scale from baseline. 0-15+ scale. (0= no anxiety, 15+= severe anxiety)

  4. Patient Health Questionnaire - PHQ-9 Depression [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) from baseline. Score range 0-27 (0= no depression, 27= severe depression)

  5. Psychiatric Indices- Global Assessment of Functioning [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale from baseline. 1-100 scale (1= persistent danger of hurting self or others, 100= superior functioning)

  6. Psychiatric Indices- Quality of Life [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Manchester Quality of Life Scale (MANSA) from baseline. Range 12-84 (each of 12 outcomes rated from 1= could not be worse to 7= could not be better; <4= dissatisfied with QoL, >4= satisfied with QoL)

  7. Psychiatric Indices- BPRS [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) from baseline. Score range 18-126. (For each of 18 symptoms, 1=symptom not present, 7= extremely severe)

  8. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI [ Time Frame: Baseline, 16 weeks ]
    Change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index from baseline. 0-21 scale (<5=good sleeper; 5+= meaningfully disturbed sleep or poor sleeper)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Age 18-75 years old
  2. Meet DSM V criteria for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, any subtype, for > 1 year and clinically stable (with no hospitalization for past 3 months)
  3. Currently taking psychotropic medication and gained at least 5% weight since starting medication or have a BMI greater than or equal to 26 kg/m2 or presence of at least one metabolic abnormality (hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance)
  4. Willing to consent to all study procedures and attend follow-up appointments and motivated to follow the dietary program.
  5. Sufficient control over their food intake to adhere to study diets.
  6. Willingness to regularly monitor blood pressure, glucose, dietary intake, and body weight over the 4-month trial

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Any subject pregnant or nursing
  2. Comorbidity of developmental delay
  3. Active substance abuse with illicit drugs or alcohol
  4. In a current severe mood or psychotic state when entering the study that would prohibit compliance with study visits or dietary program.
  5. Anyone who has been hospitalized or taken clozapine over the past 3 months
  6. Inability to complete baseline measurements
  7. Severe renal or hepatic insufficiency
  8. Cardiovascular dysfunction, including diagnosis of:

    1. Congestive heart failure
    2. Angina
    3. Arrhythmias
    4. Cardiomyopathy
    5. Valvular heart disease
  9. Any other medical condition that may make either diet dangerous as determined by the study medical team (e.g. anorexia nervosa)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03935854

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United States, California
Stanford University Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
Stanford, California, United States, 94305
Sponsors and Collaborators
Stanford University
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Principal Investigator: Shebani Sethi Dalai, MD Stanford University
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Responsible Party: Shebani Sethi, Clinical Assistant Professor, Stanford University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03935854    
Other Study ID Numbers: 48527
First Posted: May 2, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 8, 2022
Last Verified: December 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Brain Diseases, Metabolic
Metabolic Diseases
Bipolar Disorder
Nutrition Disorders
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Mental Disorders
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Metabolic Syndrome
Weight Gain
Pathologic Processes
Body Weight
Insulin Resistance
Body Weight Changes