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Analgo-Sedative Effects Of Oral, Or Nebulized Ketamine In Pre-schoolers Undergoing Elective Surgery.

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03885427
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 21, 2019
Last Update Posted : June 19, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Alshaimaa Abdel Fattah Kamel, Zagazig University

Brief Summary:
the primary objective of this study is to investigate the sedative, and analgesic effects of oral, or nebulized ketamine as premedication drugs, and providing postoperative analgesia for the preschoolers and decrease their need for systemic analgesia.The secondary objective is to compare each sedation technique after oral, or nebulized ketamine for safety ,and procedural outcomes.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Conscious Sedation Postoperative Analgesia Drug: Ketamine Early Phase 1

Detailed Description:

Preoperative communication, premedication interventions, and being accompanied by parents are useful methods in decreasing preoperative separation anxiety , postoperative psychological trauma, and ensuring smooth induction for preschoolers undergoing elective surgery.

Procedural sedation, and analgesia was defined by O'Donnell as a drug induced state of decreasing awareness, pain, and memory that allowing patient continue his ,or her own protective reflexes, and moving purposefully( O' Donnell etal, 2003).

Ketamine is an anesthetic drug having sedative, and analgesic properties with different routes of administration in children (IV, intramuscular, subcutaneous, oral, rectal, sublingual, intranasal, and nebulized) .

Ketamine produces its analgesic properties in acut pain management from reversible antagonizing the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)receptors , reducing levels of many proinflammatory mediators in the acute phase, and acting on other non-NMDA pathways that playing important roles in pain, and mood regulation, like its effect on µ-opioid receptors, nicotinic, muscarinic cholinergic, ɣ-aminobutyric acid receptors, activation of high -affinity D2 dopamine receptors, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

The oral route is the most popular than other routes ,as it's safe, efficient, acceptable, and familiar for pediatric patients..

Oral ketamine often requires higher, and frequent doses as it's bioavailability is lower (17-24%) compared to IV (100%),Intramuscular (93%), sublingual/transbuccal(30%), intranasal(25-50%),and inhaler (70%) due to extensive first pass metabolism in liver, and intestine.

Ketamine inhalation is safe, rapid absorption, and affordable route of administration.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 62 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: this will be a double blind study, and utilize a convenience sample of pre-schoolers. 31 children recruited in In oral ketamine arm, and 31 children in nebulized ketamine arm
Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: The investigator will prepare the drug, and the out come assessor(the anesthesiologist not sharing in the study) will assess the primary, and secondary outcomes
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Analgo-Sedative Effects Of Oral, Or Nebulized Ketamine In Pre-schoolers Undergoing Elective Surgery: A-Comparative Randomized Double Blind Study
Actual Study Start Date : March 27, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 15, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : June 1, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Toddler Health
Drug Information available for: Ketamine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: oral ketamine
evaluate sedative,and analgesic effects
Drug: Ketamine
evaluate sedative, and analgesic effects of oral or nebulized ketamine
Other Name: ketalar

Active Comparator: nebulized ketamine
evaluate sedative, and analgesic effects
Drug: Ketamine
evaluate sedative, and analgesic effects of oral or nebulized ketamine
Other Name: ketalar




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. evaluate sedative effects of oral, or nebulized ketamine in preschoolers undergoing elective surgery [ Time Frame: 30 minutes. ]

    • To assess onset time of sedation by sedation scale (SS-5) score.

    The sedation scale:

    1. Rarely awake, needs shaking, or shouting to wake up.
    2. Asleep, eyes closed, wake up when called softly,or lightly touched.
    3. Sleepy, but eyes open spontaneously.
    4. Awake.
    5. Agitated.

  2. compare each sedation technique for the time of separation state. [ Time Frame: at 30 minutes after drug intake ]

    The separation state will be assessed and designated as satisfactory separation if the Emotional State Scale (ESS-4) score will be no more than two points.

    The Emotional State Scale (ESS-4):

    1. Calm.
    2. Apprehensive, not smiling, tentative behavior, withdrawn.
    3. Crying.
    4. Thrashing, crying with movements of the arms, and legs, resisting.

  3. compare the sedation technique for successful venous cannulation. [ Time Frame: at time of attempted cannulation, regardless of whether the vein is actually cannulated on the first attempt. ]

    Successful venous cannulation is defined as an Emotional State Scale (ESS-4≤ 2).

    The Emotional State Scale (ESS-4):

    1. Calm.
    2. Apprehensive, not smiling, tentative behavior, withdrawn.
    3. Crying.
    4. Thrashing, crying with movements of the arms, and legs, resisting.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. to compare the intensity of pain postoperative. [ Time Frame: immediately after recovery, and every half hour for four hours postoperative ]

    the intensity of pain will be assessed using modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS).

    Score 1 2 3 Cry No cry Crying, moaning Scream Facial Smiling Composed Grimace Verbal Positive None, or other complaints Pain complaint Torso Neutral Shifting, tense, upright Restrained Leg Neutral kicks, squirm, drawn up Restrained Touch No touching Reach, touch, grab Restrained CHEOPS pain score=SUM(0)(points for all 6 parameters). Interpretation : minimum score:6, maximum score:18.




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Ages Eligible for Study:   3 Years to 6 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Parents acceptance.
  • Age (3-6) years old.
  • American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status (ASA) I / II
  • Elective surgery of approximately half to one hour duration under general anesthesia.
  • Child With Body Mass Index (BMI) (15-18kg/m²)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Parents refusal.
  • Altered mental status, and epilepsy.
  • History of allergy to ketamine.
  • Recent respiratory tract infection.
  • Sever dysfunction of the central nervous system.
  • Increased intracranial pressure, and increased intra-ocular pressure.
  • Cardiac dysrhythmia ,and/or congenital heart disease.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03885427


Locations
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Egypt
Zagazig University Hospitsals
Zagazig, Egypt, 055
Sponsors and Collaborators
Zagazig University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Alshaimaa Kamel, M.D Zagazig University

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Responsible Party: Alshaimaa Abdel Fattah Kamel, Principal investigator, Zagazig University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03885427     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 5296
First Posted: March 21, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 19, 2019
Last Verified: June 2019

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No

Keywords provided by Alshaimaa Abdel Fattah Kamel, Zagazig University:
sedation
ketamine
analgesia
pre-schoolers

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Ketamine
Analgesics
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anesthetics, Dissociative
Anesthetics, Intravenous
Anesthetics, General
Anesthetics
Central Nervous System Depressants
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action