Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Some Synthetic Cannabinoids in Assiut Psychiatric Hospitals
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03866941|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : March 7, 2019
Last Update Posted : January 12, 2021
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment|
|Epidemiologic Data of Some Synthetic Cannibinoids Toxicity in Patients Presenting at Assiut University Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Ministry of Health) Proportion of Acute and Chronic Abusers of Synthetic Cannibinoids Among Cases of Illicit Drugs Abuser in Studied Sites||Behavioral: causes of abuse synthetic cannibinoids|
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are new human-made mind-altering chemicals which are similar to chemicals found in the marijuana plant; they are recent to be used recreationally, especially by young adults. This new generation of novel cannabinoid compounds has been developed to avoid drug control laws and routine cannabinoid blood tests.
SCs are dissolved in ethanol or acetone and sprayed on plant material, which is then sold in packets as incense, herbal blends. These products are sold under a variety of names including "Spice," "K2," "Black Mamba," "Scooby Snax" and in Egypt is known as "Voodoo" and "Strox". The chemical constituents and concentrations of compounds vary between and within packages.
Voodoo is one of these synthetic Cannabinoids that newly emerged in Egypt targeting the youth causing many reported cases of toxicity. This made the Egyptian Ministry of Health in 2014 to list it in drug schedule 1 and warned traffickers and users that they are now under criminal penalties.
Hundreds of SC were categorized into many structural groups and can be detected by Gass chromatography such as adamantoylindoles, aminoalkylindoles, benzoylindoles, cyclohexylphenols, dibenzopyrans, naphthoylindoles, naphthylmethylindoles, naphthylmethylindenes, naphthoylpyrroles, phenylacetylindoles, tetramethylcyclopropyl ketone indoles, quinolinyl ester indoles, and indazole carboxamide compounds.
Usually, 0.5 to 3 g of finely cut green/brown plant material is presented in colorful and professionally designed packets. Various herbs such as Pedicularis densiflora, Nymphacea caerulea, Leonotis leonurus, Leonurus sibiricus, Carnavalia maritima, and Zornia latifolia were declared as ingredients .
Smoking is the most common reported route of administration of SCs, although oral, pulmonary (via vapourization) and rectal administration has been described.
SCs interact with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and elicit cannabimimetic effects similar to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis. Although SC drugs mimic the psychotropic effects of cannabis, their undesired effects are unpredictable and more severe than those associated with cannabis.
SCs can result in acute, chronic and withdrawal manifestations. Similar to cannabis, the acute intoxication of SCs may induce manifestations such as relaxation, euphoria, perceptual alteration, altered sense of time, and mild cognitive impairments . Other adverse effects include confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, agitation, irritability, nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, delusions, increased heart rate, hypertension, vertigo and mydriasis [12-14]. Less common cardiac effects include chest pain, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest and acute kidney damage.
Cases of synthetic cannabis abuse were associated with the manifestation of violence in Egypt and worldwide [16, 17]. These cognitive alterations increase the risk of road accidents if cannabis or SC users drive while intoxication. Moreover, Psychoactive substances are often regarded as possible contributing causal factors in cases of violent injuries, sexual abuse, and homicides.
|Study Type :||Observational [Patient Registry]|
|Estimated Enrollment :||100 participants|
|Target Follow-Up Duration:||3 Days|
|Official Title:||Evaluation of Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Some Synthetic Cannabinoids in Assiut Psychiatric Hospitals (Clinical and Experimental Study)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 1, 2019|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||June 30, 2021|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||December 30, 2021|
|synthetic cannibinoids users||
Behavioral: causes of abuse synthetic cannibinoids
Epidemiological data (age, sex, residence, occupation, route of abuse, the cause of abuse and smoking) (2) Symptoms and signs (seizures, psychosis, hallucinations) (3) Injuries and their relation to violence (type of wound, type of instrument, number of injuries, external or internal injuries and assailant or victim).
- proportion of acute and chronicsynthetic cannibinoids abuser among cases of illicit drugs abuser in studied sites. [ Time Frame: 2 years ]the magnitude and spread of this new drug of abuse
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03866941
|Contact: marwa email@example.com|
|Contact: Assiut university||+088 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Assiut, Egypt, 71515|
|Contact: marwa abdelrahim|
|Study Director:||Wafaa Abdel Moneim||assiut univesity|