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Testing Immunotherapy Versus Observation in Patients With HPV Throat Cancer

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03811015
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : January 22, 2019
Last Update Posted : November 29, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Brief Summary:
This phase III trials studies whether maintenance immunotherapy (nivolumab) following definitive treatment with radiation and chemotherapy (cisplatin) result in significant improvement in overall survival (time being alive) and progression-free survival (time being alive without cancer) for patients with intermediate risk human papillomavirus (HPV) positive oropharynx cancer (throat cancer) that has spread to nearby tissue or lymph nodes. Drugs used in chemotherapy such as cisplatin work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Radiation therapy uses high energy rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by maintenance nivolumab therapy works better than chemotherapy and radiation therapy alone in treating patients with HPV positive oropharyngeal cancer.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Clinical Stage II HPV-Mediated (p16-Positive) Oropharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v8 Clinical Stage III HPV-Mediated (p16-Positive) Oropharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v8 Pathologic Stage II HPV-Mediated (p16-Positive) Oropharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v8 Pathologic Stage III HPV-Mediated (p16-Positive) Oropharyngeal Carcinoma AJCC v8 Drug: Cisplatin Radiation: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Biological: Nivolumab Other: Patient Observation Phase 2 Phase 3

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 636 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Randomized Study of Maintenance Nivolumab Versus Observation in Patients With Locally Advanced, Intermediate Risk HPV Positive OPSCC
Actual Study Start Date : June 20, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : January 1, 2027
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 1, 2027

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm A (cisplatin, IMRT, nivolumab)
Patients receive cisplatin IV over 60 minutes weekly and IMRT 5 days a week for 7 weeks for a total of 35 fractions. Within 4 weeks after completion of concurrent therapy, patients receive nivolumab IV once weekly over 30 minutes every 4 weeks for 12 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Drug: Cisplatin
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Abiplatin
  • Blastolem
  • Briplatin
  • CDDP
  • Cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum
  • Cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum
  • Cis-diamminedichloro Platinum (II)
  • Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum
  • Cis-dichloroammine Platinum (II)
  • Cis-platinous Diamine Dichloride
  • Cis-platinum
  • Cis-platinum II
  • Cis-platinum II Diamine Dichloride
  • Cismaplat
  • Cisplatina
  • Cisplatinum
  • Cisplatyl
  • Citoplatino
  • Citosin
  • Cysplatyna
  • DDP
  • Lederplatin
  • Metaplatin
  • Neoplatin
  • Peyrone's Chloride
  • Peyrone's Salt
  • Placis
  • Plastistil
  • Platamine
  • Platiblastin
  • Platiblastin-S
  • Platinex
  • Platinol
  • Platinol- AQ
  • Platinol-AQ
  • Platinol-AQ VHA Plus
  • Platinoxan
  • Platinum
  • Platinum Diamminodichloride
  • Platiran
  • Platistin
  • Platosin

Radiation: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy
Undergo IMRT
Other Names:
  • IMRT
  • Intensity Modulated RT
  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy
  • Radiation, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

Biological: Nivolumab
Given IV
Other Names:
  • BMS-936558
  • CMAB819
  • MDX-1106
  • NIVO
  • Nivolumab Biosimilar CMAB819
  • ONO-4538
  • Opdivo

Active Comparator: Arm B (cisplatin, IMRT, observation)

Patients receive cisplatin IV over 60 minutes weekly and IMRT 5 days a week for 7 weeks for a total of 35 fractions, and then go on observation.

Patients will be offered the option to cross-over to Arm C if they have clearly documented progression within 12 months from the end of cisplatin/radiation therapy.

Drug: Cisplatin
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Abiplatin
  • Blastolem
  • Briplatin
  • CDDP
  • Cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum
  • Cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum
  • Cis-diamminedichloro Platinum (II)
  • Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum
  • Cis-dichloroammine Platinum (II)
  • Cis-platinous Diamine Dichloride
  • Cis-platinum
  • Cis-platinum II
  • Cis-platinum II Diamine Dichloride
  • Cismaplat
  • Cisplatina
  • Cisplatinum
  • Cisplatyl
  • Citoplatino
  • Citosin
  • Cysplatyna
  • DDP
  • Lederplatin
  • Metaplatin
  • Neoplatin
  • Peyrone's Chloride
  • Peyrone's Salt
  • Placis
  • Plastistil
  • Platamine
  • Platiblastin
  • Platiblastin-S
  • Platinex
  • Platinol
  • Platinol- AQ
  • Platinol-AQ
  • Platinol-AQ VHA Plus
  • Platinoxan
  • Platinum
  • Platinum Diamminodichloride
  • Platiran
  • Platistin
  • Platosin

Radiation: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy
Undergo IMRT
Other Names:
  • IMRT
  • Intensity Modulated RT
  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy
  • Radiation, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

Other: Patient Observation
Undergo observation
Other Names:
  • Active Surveillance
  • deferred therapy
  • expectant management
  • Observation
  • Watchful Waiting

Experimental: Arm C (nivolumab)
Patients receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes every 4 weeks for 12 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Biological: Nivolumab
Given IV
Other Names:
  • BMS-936558
  • CMAB819
  • MDX-1106
  • NIVO
  • Nivolumab Biosimilar CMAB819
  • ONO-4538
  • Opdivo




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall survival (OS) [ Time Frame: From randomization to death, assessed up to 10 years ]
    Log rank test will be used to compare OS. As patients on the observation arm are allowed to cross-over to the nivolumab arm upon progression, an overall survival analysis using inverse probability censoring weights (IPCW, Robins et. al, 2000) will also be considered. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression will be used for the survival outcome analyses.

  2. Negative (standardized qualitative) 12 week post therapy (cisplatin + radiation therapy [RT]) FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) associated with OS for patients who have a PET/CT [ Time Frame: At 12 weeks post therapy ]
    Logrank tests and input hazard rates will be used.

  3. Negative (standardized qualitative) 12 week post therapy (cisplatin + RT) FDG PET/CT associated with PFS for patients who have a PET/CT [ Time Frame: At 12 weeks post therapy ]
    Logrank tests and input hazard rates will be used.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-free survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization to date of progression, second primary tumor from the head and neck region, or death, assessed up to 10 years ]
    Progression will be defined using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria. The comparison of PFS will use stratified log rank test and will be intent-to-treat analyses.

  2. Prognostic effect of baseline PD-L1 expression (positive versus [vs.] negative) on OS and PFS [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 10 years ]
    Chi-square testing or Pearson correlation testing will be used for the secondary correlation analyses.

  3. Prognostic effect of baseline saliva and/or plasma human papillomavirus (HPV) status (positive vs. negative) on OS and PFS [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 10 years ]
    Saliva and plasma HPV status at 12 weeks and 9 months following completion of concurrent therapy will also be analyzed regarding effect on outcome. Chi-square testing or Pearson correlation testing will be used for the secondary correlation analyses.

  4. Prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary tumor or neck nodal metastasis of baseline FDG PET/CT for OS [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 10 years ]
    Chi-square testing or Pearson correlation testing will be used for the secondary correlation analyses.

  5. Prognostic value of SUVmax of primary tumor or neck nodal metastasis of baseline FDG PET/CT for PFS [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 10 years ]
    Chi-square testing or Pearson correlation testing will be used for the secondary correlation analyses.

  6. SUVmax of primary tumor or nodal metastasis of baseline FDG PET/CT with PD-L1 expression (positive vs. negative) [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 10 years ]
    Chi-square testing or Pearson correlation testing will be used for the secondary correlation analyses.

  7. Post therapy (cisplatin + RT) FDG PET/CT with saliva or plasma levels of HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) [ Time Frame: Up to 9 months post-therapy ]
    Chi-square testing or Pearson correlation testing will be used for the secondary correlation analyses.

  8. PET based therapy response assessment compared to RECIST 1.1 assessment for patients who have a PET/CT scan at 12 weeks [ Time Frame: At 12 weeks post chemoradiation therapy ]
    Kappa statistics will be applied to evaluate the agreement between PET based therapy response assessment (Hopkins criteria) and RECIST 1.1 assessment at 12 weeks post chemoradiation therapy.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • STEP 1: Age >= 18 years
  • STEP 1: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1.
  • STEP 1: Patients must have oropharynx cancer (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] 8) that is p16-positive by immunohistochemistry with the following criteria: >= 10 pack-years, stage T1-2N2-N3 or T3-4N0-3 (less than 10 pack-years is considered a non-smoker) OR < 10 pack-years, stage T4N0-N3 or T1-3N2-3.
  • STEP 1: Patients must not have known hypersensitivity to nivolumab or compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition.
  • STEP 1: Patients with a history of allergic reactions attributed to platinum-based chemotherapy agents are excluded.
  • STEP 1: Patients must not have had prior systemic therapy, radiation treatment or surgery for p16 positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).

    • NOTE: Patients who had resection of T1 or T2 carcinoma with no radiation or chemotherapy are eligible if surgery was done 5 years prior to enrollment
  • STEP 1: Patients must not have received previous irradiation for head and neck tumor, skull base, or brain tumors.
  • STEP 1: Patients must not receive investigational agents within 4 weeks of enrollment or at any time while on study.
  • STEP 1: Patients with evidence of distant metastases or leptomeningeal disease (LMD) are excluded.
  • STEP 1: Patients with uncontrolled inter-current illnesses which in the opinion of the investigator will interfere with the ability to undergo therapy including chemotherapy are excluded.
  • STEP 1: Patients with a history of prior or second malignancy are excluded, with the exception of curatively treated non-melanoma skin cancer, or curatively treated cervical cancer; additionally, patients curatively treated for malignancy who remain disease-free at > 2 years of follow up, are not excluded.
  • STEP 1: Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1500/mm^3 (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization).
  • STEP 1: Hemoglobin (Hgb) >= 8.0 g/dL (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization).
  • STEP 1: Platelet count >= 100,000/mm^3 (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization).
  • STEP 1: Creatinine clearance of >= 60 ml/min (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization). Creatinine clearance may be measured or calculated. If calculating, creatinine clearance, use the Cockcroft-Gault formula.
  • STEP 1: Total bilirubin within 1.5 times the normal limits (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization).
  • STEP 1: Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) or serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) within 2.0 times the normal limits (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization).
  • STEP 1: Alkaline phosphatase within 2.0 times the normal limits (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to randomization).
  • STEP 1: Patients must not be pregnant or breast-feeding as chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy may have possible teratogenicity effects; in addition, complications from pregnancy may interfere with the ability of patients to have an uninterrupted therapy. All patients of childbearing potential must have a blood test or urine study within 2 weeks prior to randomization to rule out pregnancy. A patient of childbearing potential is any female, regardless of sexual orientation or whether they have undergone tubal ligation, who meets the following criteria: 1) has achieved menarche at some point, 2) has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy or 3) has not been naturally postmenopausal (amenorrhea following cancer therapy does not rule out childbearing potential) for at least 24 consecutive months (i.e., has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive months).
  • STEP 1: Patients of childbearing potential must use an accepted and effective method of contraception or abstain from sexual intercourse for at least one week prior to the start of treatment, and continue for 5 months after the last dose of protocol treatment. Patients must also not donate ova during this same time period.
  • STEP 1: Patients must have measurable disease as defined.
  • STEP 1: Patients must have tumor measurements with CT of neck and CT of chest (or CT of neck and FDG PET/CT if standard of care) within 4 weeks prior to Step 1 randomization.
  • STEP 1: Patients with active autoimmune disease or history of autoimmune disease that might recur, which may affect vital organ function or require immune suppressive treatment including systemic corticosteroids, should be excluded. These include but are not limited to patients with a history of immune related neurologic disease, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune (demyelinating) neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis; systemic autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), connective tissue disease, scleroderma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's, ulcerative colitis, hepatitis; and patients with a history of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or phospholipid syndrome should be excluded because of the risk of recurrence or exacerbation of disease. Patients with vitiligo, endocrine deficiencies including thyroiditis managed with replacement hormones including physiologic corticosteroids are eligible. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other arthropathies, Sjogren's syndrome and psoriasis controlled with topical medication and patients with positive serology, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-thyroid antibodies should be evaluated for the presence of target organ involvement and potential need for systemic treatment but should otherwise be eligible.
  • STEP 1: Patients are permitted to enroll if they have vitiligo, type I diabetes mellitus, residual hypothyroidism due to autoimmune condition only requiring hormone replacement, psoriasis not requiring systemic treatment, or conditions not expected to recur in the absence of an external trigger (precipitating event).
  • STEP 1: Patients must not have a condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (> 10 mg/day prednisone equivalents) or other immunosuppressive medications which are expected to continue during nivolumab administration. Inhaled or topical steroids and adrenal replacement doses > 10 mg/day prednisone equivalents are permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease
  • STEP 1: Patients must not have a positive test result for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBV sAg) or hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV RNA) indicating acute or chronic infection
  • STEP 1: Patients with a known history of testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or known acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) must have no detectable viral load on a stable antiviral regimen
  • STEP 1: Patients must not be receiving any other investigational agents.
  • STEP 1: Patient must not have a baseline clinically significant hearing loss, which in the opinion of the investigator would preclude the use of cisplatin
  • STEP 2: Patients must have progression per RECIST criteria AND tissue-proven progression on Arm B treatment within 12 months after completion of radiation therapy.
  • STEP 2: ECOG performance status of 0 or 1.
  • STEP 2: Patients must not have known hypersensitivity to nivolumab or compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition.
  • STEP 2: Patients must not have received non-protocol anti-cancer therapy after completion of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • STEP 2: ANC >= 1500/mm^3 (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration).
  • STEP 2: Hgb >= 8.0 g/dL (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration).
  • STEP 2: Platelet count >= 100,000/mm^3 (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration).
  • STEP 2: Creatinine clearance of >= 60 ml/min (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration). Creatinine clearance may be measured or calculated. If calculating, creatinine clearance, use the Cockcroft-Gault formula.
  • STEP 2: Total bilirubin within 1.5 times the normal limits (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration).
  • STEP 2: SGOT (AST) or SGPT (ALT) within 2.0 times the normal limits (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration).
  • STEP 2: Alkaline phosphatase within 1.5 times the normal limits (must be obtained =< 2 weeks prior to registration).
  • STEP 2: Patients must not be pregnant or breast-feeding as chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy may have possible teratogenicity effects; in addition, complications from pregnancy may interfere with the ability of patients to have an uninterrupted therapy. All women of childbearing potential must have a blood test or urine study within 2 weeks prior to registration to rule out pregnancy. A women of childbearing potential is any female, regardless of sexual orientation or whether they have undergone tubal ligation, who meets the following criteria: 1) has achieved menarche at some point, 2) has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy or 3) has not been naturally postmenopausal (amenorrhea following cancer therapy does not rule out childbearing potential) for at least 24 consecutive months (i.e., has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive months).
  • STEP 2: Patients of childbearing potential must use an accepted and effective method of contraception or abstain from sexual intercourse for at least one week prior to the start of treatment, and continue for 5 months after the last dose of protocol treatment. Patients must also not donate ova during this same time period.
  • STEP 2: Patients must have measurable disease.
  • STEP 2: Patients must have tumor measurements with CT of neck and CT of chest (or CT of neck and FDG PET/CT if standard of care) within 4 weeks prior to Step 2 registration.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03811015


Locations
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Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Nabil F Saba ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group
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Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03811015    
Other Study ID Numbers: NCI-2019-00179
NCI-2019-00179 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
EA3161 ( Other Identifier: ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group )
EA3161 ( Other Identifier: CTEP )
U10CA180820 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: January 22, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 29, 2021
Last Verified: September 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: NCI is committed to sharing data in accordance with NIH policy. For more details on how clinical trial data is shared, access the link to the NIH data sharing policy page
URL: https://grants.nih.gov/policy/sharing.htm

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma
Oropharyngeal Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Pharyngeal Neoplasms
Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Pharyngeal Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases
Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
Cisplatin
Nivolumab
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action