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Mechanisms of EPO-induced Hypertension (EPIC)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03810911
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : January 21, 2019
Last Update Posted : September 9, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
VA Office of Research and Development

Brief Summary:
The investigators hypothesize that compared to untreated controls, erythropoietin (EPO) therapy in anemic patients with chronic kidney disease will raise diastolic blood pressure (BP). The magnitude of increase in diastolic BP at 12 weeks after treatment will be related to two factors. First, endothelial dysfunction and worsening of endothelial function from baseline to 4 weeks and second, the change of forearm blood flow in response to breathing oxygen and the change in this measure from baseline to 4 weeks. Study procedures include fasting blood draws, ambulatory blood pressure, urine collection, and forearm blood flow tests. The study hopes to accrue 160 subjects.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Chronic Kidney Disease Blood Pressure Anemia Drug: Darbepoetin Phase 2

Detailed Description:
Hypertension is a common but frequently overlooked and underreported adverse effect of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. Recent trials have noted substantial cardiovascular risks associated with normalization of hemoglobin. The risk of strokes is strongly related to poorly controlled hypertension. Blood pressure was not measured the way it usually is in hypertension trials, so the investigators cannot be completely confident that the risk of strokes in this large randomized trial was not related to EPO-induced hypertension. New therapies, such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers are on the horizon but it remains to be seen whether these new drugs would have a lower or a higher risk for hypertension compared to EPO. Accordingly, understanding the mechanism of EPO-induced hypertension is urgent. The investigators hypothesize that compared to untreated controls, EPO therapy in anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) will raise diastolic blood pressure. The magnitude of increase in diastolic BP at 12 weeks after treatment will be related to two factors. First, endothelial dysfunction and worsening of endothelial function from baseline to 4 weeks and second, the modulation of forearm blood flow in response to breathing oxygen and the change in this measure from baseline to 4 weeks. If the investigators understood the time course, the magnitude, and the mechanisms of exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) the investigators will better be able to design studies to compare the vascular effects of EPO and HIF stabilizers in the future. Thus, this study has the potential of improving the investigators' understanding of a common side effect of EPO by precisely quantifying the magnitude of BP change, its effects on endothelial function, and discovering the biomarkers of these adverse effects. Thus, the investigators can in the future robustly compare these effects of EPO with HIF stabilizers. This study is innovative because it will focus on the potential mechanisms by which EPO induces an increase in BP. The time-course and magnitude of change in BP will be assessed using the gold-standard measurement of 24 hour ambulatory BP recordings. The more frequent clinic BP recordings using validated methods will better allow us to track changes in BP over time. The investigators' lab is uniquely qualified to carry out these experiments due to a large experience with such types of studies. The investigators will examine endothelial function using a reference method -- that of flow-mediated dilatation -- which is established in the investigators' laboratory. The investigators will directly test the hypothesis whether hypoxia-sensitivity of the vascular tissue is responsible for the BP increase.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 160 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description: All subjects will receive darbepoetin during the study. One group, the immediate start group, will receive the drug the day of randomization. The other group, the delayed start group, will receive the drug 12 weeks later.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Masking Description: The groups are randomized not the study drug. The groups will be known by both the participant and the investigator.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Mechanisms of Erythropoietin Induced Hypertension
Estimated Study Start Date : November 1, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 15, 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 2, 2023

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Early start
Participants given study drug immediately at randomization
Drug: Darbepoetin
Used to treat anemia. In the group labeled no intervention, the intervention is simply delayed 12 weeks after randomization as noted in the description.
Other Name: EPO

No Intervention: Delayed start
Participants given study drugs 12 weeks after randomization



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in diastolic blood pressure in EPO treated patients compared to delayed start controls [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 weeks ]
    In the delayed start group (the control group), the investigators will measure the change in diastolic blood pressure from 0 weeks to 12 weeks compared to the change in diastolic BP from 0 to 12 weeks in the immediate start group.

  2. Change in flow mediated dilatation (FMD) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 4 weeks ]
    Those treated with EPO compared to the delayed start group. The hypothesis being tested is that EPO will cause impairment in endothelial function.

  3. Oxygen-induced change in forearm blood flow (OIC-FBF) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 4 weeks ]
    Outcome from baseline to 4 weeks in those treated with EPO compared to time controls. Hypothesis being tested is that those with the greatest change in OIC-FBF will have the greatest increment in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure

  4. Predictors of change in flow mediated dilatation (FMD) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 4 weeks ]
    A multivariable model will be created to predict the change in FMD from baseline to 4 w. Model 1 will have an indicator variable of those treated with EPO compared to time controls (this is outcome 2 essentially). Model 2 will have the following predictors of this change in addition: baseline values of urine albumin/creat ratio, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), urine nitrate and nitrite, renin, aldosterone, and plasma endothelin-1. Model 3 will include all the variables in Model 1 and 2 and also include change from baseline to 4 weeks in the same variables reported in Model 2.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in systolic blood pressure in EPO treated patients [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 weeks ]
    In the delayed start group (the control group), the investigators will measure the change in systolic blood pressure change from 0 weeks to 12 weeks compared to the change in systolic BP from 0 to 12 weeks in the immediate start group.

  2. Between group change in hypertension status [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 weeks ]
    Worsening of hypertension at any time point will be defined as either an increase in blood pressure medication, an increase in seated clinic diastolic blood pressure by greater than or equal to 10 mmHg or systolic blood pressure increase of greater than or equal to 20 mmHg. Between-group change in hypertension status from baseline to 12 weeks will be compared in the immediate start and delayed start groups.

  3. Within group change in hypertension status [ Time Frame: baseline to 12 weeks vs 12 weeks to 24 weeks ]
    Worsening of hypertension at any time point will be defined as either an increase in blood pressure medication, an increase in seated clinic diastolic blood pressure by greater than or equal to 10 mmHg or systolic blood pressure increase of greater than or equal to 20 mmHg. Within-group change in hypertension status from 12 weeks to 24 weeks will be compared to the control period of 0 weeks to 12 weeks in the delayed start group.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease
  • Controlled hypertension with 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring less than 130/80 mmHg at baseline and treatment with at least 1 antihypertensive medication
  • Hemoglobin between 8 and 10 g/dL
  • No treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) within 3 previous months

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Need for packed red blood cells (RBC) transfusion in the previous 2 months
  • Myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalization for heart failure in the past 2 months
  • In the assessment of the investigator, have hematologic, inflammatory, infectious, or other conditions that might interfere with the erythropoietic response

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03810911


Contacts
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Contact: Rajiv Agarwal, MD MBBS (317) 988-2241 ragarwal@iu.edu
Contact: Alisa A Stachler Alisa.Stachler@va.gov

Locations
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United States, Indiana
Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN Not yet recruiting
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202-2884
Contact: Rajiv Agarwal, MD MBBS    317-988-2241    ragarwal@iu.edu   
Contact: Alisa A Stachler       Alisa.Stachler@va.gov   
Principal Investigator: Rajiv Agarwal, MD MBBS         
Sponsors and Collaborators
VA Office of Research and Development
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Rajiv Agarwal, MD MBBS Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN

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Responsible Party: VA Office of Research and Development
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03810911     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NEPH-005-18S
052387 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Indiana Institute for Medical Research )
First Posted: January 21, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 9, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Keywords provided by VA Office of Research and Development:
Forearm blood flow
Flow mediated dilatation
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Kidney Diseases
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Hypertension
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Renal Insufficiency
Darbepoetin alfa
Hematinics