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Effectiveness of Synapse Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation (TENS) During Dental Procedures Among Children

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03779659
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : December 19, 2018
Last Update Posted : March 26, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Boston University

Brief Summary:
Dental Fear and Anxiety (DFA) are at higher levels among children and often leads to avoidance of dental treatment. Negative experiences in the early years such as experience of pain during injections, fillings, or extractions may lead to difficulties in treatment and behavior management among children. During dental procedures such as restorations and extractions injectable anesthetics are required as they are used to anesthetize and numb the area around the tooth receiving treatment. Topical anesthetics are used prior to using injectable anesthetic to alleviate some pain and discomfort. Topical anesthetics should be used with caution as they consist of more concentrated doses of pharmaceutical elements used in injectable anesthetics. Such high concentrations can result in increased gag reflux, central nervous system depression and cardiovascular effects in rare cases. With many recent advances in dental treatment, there is also a need for new non-pharmaceutical strategies to alleviate pain and discomfort among children which in turn will motivate children and their parents to visit the dental clinic more frequently. Electronic anesthesia or Synapse Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation (TENS), a non-invasive device that uses low energy electrical stimulation to reduce pain perception, has gained acceptance since the 1990s. Advantages of using the TENS device are that it is safe, easy to use, well-accepted among patients as evidenced in the few trials conducted so far, no adverse complications and has been successful in alleviating pain during dental procedures. This study aims to explore use of the TENS to alleviate pain and discomfort at the oral mucosal site where the patient will receive a local anesthetic injection. In this randomized case-crossover trial among children aged 6-14 years the effectiveness of Aleve TENS device in reducing pain and anxiety among children prior to receiving injectable local anesthetic agent during dental procedures is compared to those who receive the local anesthetic gel prior to receiving local anesthetic injection.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Dental Fear Anesthesia, Local Pediatric Dentistry Device: Synapse TENS device Drug: Topical anesthetic gel Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Children between 6-14 years will be recruited at the Pediatric Oral Healthcare Center. A sample of 100 male and female children who fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria are recruited. Once parents' consent at the first visit basic demographic information, dental and medical history information is collected. This study is conducted in total of two clinic visits. In the first visit participants are randomized to either the intervention group or the comparison group. The intervention group receives the experimental device (TENS) prior to local anesthetic injection whereas the comparison group receives the local anesthetic gel. Following this the participants receive the local anesthetic injection after which treatment is completed. In the second visit the participants are crossed over to the other group and therefore randomization is not used for visit 2. Those who received the local anesthetic gel in visit 1 will receive the experimental device in visit 2 and those who received the experimental device in visit 1 will receive the local anesthetic gel in visit 2 . Following this treatment procedures are completed.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effectiveness of Synapse Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation (TENS) Device in Reducing Pain Among Children 6-14 Years During Dental Treatments in a Randomized Cross-over Clinical Trial
Estimated Study Start Date : July 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : August 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : February 2022

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Dental Health

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Synapse TENS device
SYnapse TENS device will be used for alleviating pain through electrical stimulation. This is a battery powered device where an electrical current is applied intra-orally on the buccal and lingual sides using an intra-oral pad applicator. This device has been cleared for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the prescribed electrical field falls almost a 10 factor level lower than routine pulp testing devices used in dentistry. The TENS device was previously tested in a pilot study with promising results. Chair side application and at-home use of the device by the patient was shown to drastically reduce pain and discomfort associated with orthodontic tooth movement.
Device: Synapse TENS device
At the time of local anesthetic application the TENS device will be activated and placed on the buccal and lingual alveolar mucosa adjacent to the tooth receiving the restorative treatment using the pad applicator. The tip of the device with the electrodes are placed in a vertical up and down motion for approximately ten seconds. Following this, the level of pain and anxiety are measured using the Wong Baker Scale and Visual Analog Scale. The TENS device is used for achieving localized pain relief at the site of local anesthetic injection prior to injecting the anesthetic agent (such as lidocaine or articaine). Following this, once the clinician ensures that the patient is pain free then local anesthetic injection is given and following that the dental procedures are conducted.
Other Name: ALEVE therapy

Active Comparator: Topical anesthetic gel
Topical anesthetic Gel is the active comparator in this study. The topical anesthesia (anesthetic gel) Centrix LolliCaine with 20% benzocaine in single package of 0.3 ml will be used. The amount of local anesthetic used will not exceed the maximum allowable dose, which will be calculated for each patient based on his/her age and weight prior to the dental procedure. This will be done based American Association of Pediatric Dentistry guidelines for the use of local anesthesia.
Drug: Topical anesthetic gel

The local anesthetic gel is typically used for achieving localized pain relief at the site of local anesthetic injection and this is part of standard care that is followed prior to dental procedures.

The amount of local anesthetic used will not exceed the maximum allowable dose, which will be calculated for each patient based on his/her age and weight prior to the dental procedure

Other Name: Centrix LolliCaine 2% xylocaine with 20% benzocaine




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Presence of Pain before treatment [ Time Frame: before the start of each treatment procedure up to 6 months ]
    The presence of pain will be a simple question in the case report form with two answer choices: yes or no.

  2. Presence of Pain before local analgesic injection [ Time Frame: after TENS or gel administration before local analgesic injection at about 1 minute ]
    The presence of pain will be a simple question in the case report form with two answer choices: yes or no.

  3. Presence of Pain after treatment [ Time Frame: about 45 minutes at the end of the treatment visit ]
    The presence of pain will be a simple question in the case report form with two answer choices: yes or no.

  4. Level of pain before treatment based on Wong-Baker Faces (WBF) pain rating scale [ Time Frame: before the start of each treatment procedure up to 6 months ]
    Level of pain will be measured using the Wong-Baker Faces (WBF) pain rating scale. The scale is a set of six cartoon faces with varying facial expressions ranging from a smile/laughter to tears. Each face has a numeric value from 0 to 5, with higher values indicating more pain. Based on child's selection of the facial expression a score will be assigned.

  5. Level of pain before local analgesic injection based on Wong-Baker Faces (WBF) pain rating scale [ Time Frame: after TENS or gel administration before local analgesic injection at about 1 minute ]
    Level of pain will be measured using the Wong-Baker Faces (WBF) pain rating scale. The scale is a set of six cartoon faces with varying facial expressions ranging from a smile/laughter to tears. Each face has a numeric value from 0 to 5, with higher values indicating more pain. Based on child's selection of the facial expression a score will be assigned.

  6. Level of pain after treatment based on Wong-Baker Faces (WBF) pain rating scale [ Time Frame: about 45 minutes at the end of the treatment visit ]
    Level of pain will be measured using the Wong-Baker Faces (WBF) pain rating scale. The scale is a set of six cartoon faces with varying facial expressions ranging from a smile/laughter to tears. Each face has a numeric value from 0 to 5, with higher values indicating more pain. Based on child's selection of the facial expression a score will be assigned.

  7. Level of dental anxiety before treatment using Visual Analog Scale [ Time Frame: before the start of each treatment procedure up to 6 months ]
    Level of anxiety will be measured using the Visual Analog Scale. The scale is a simple line with the number line ranging from 0 to 10. Children are asked how nervous or confident they feel and are asked to point or mark on the line. The corresponding numerical value will be noted for each patient.

  8. Level of dental anxiety before local analgesic injection using Visual Analog Scale [ Time Frame: after TENS or gel administration before local analgesic injection at about 1 minute ]
    Level of anxiety will be measured using the Visual Analog Scale. The scale is a simple line with the number line ranging from 0 to 10. Children are asked how nervous or confident they feel and are asked to point or mark on the line. The corresponding numerical value will be noted for each patient.

  9. Level of dental anxiety after treatment using Visual Analog Scale [ Time Frame: about 45 minutes at the end of the treatment visit ]
    Level of anxiety will be measured using the Visual Analog Scale. The scale is a simple line with the number line ranging from 0 to 10. Children are asked how nervous or confident they feel and are asked to point or mark on the line. The corresponding numerical value will be noted for each patient.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient's comfort level preference [ Time Frame: up to 6 months ]
    The comfort or preference level for TENS device versus local anesthetic gel prior to local anesthetic injection will be assessed by asking the participants about their preference using a question in the case report form with five answer choices (using Likert scale - Very uncomfortable, somewhat uncomfortable, neither comfortable nor uncomfortable, somewhat comfortable, very comfortable)..

  2. Treatment completion status [ Time Frame: up to 6 months ]
    Treatment completion status will be recorded as 'completed' or 'partially completed' on the Case Report Form at the conclusion of each treatment visit.

  3. Reason for partially completed treatment [ Time Frame: up to 6 months ]
    For participants that do not complete both treatment procedures and are categorized as 'incomplete', the reason/s why will be documented.

  4. Supplemental anesthetic use [ Time Frame: up to 6 months ]
    Amount of supplemental anesthesia if used for each of the two treatment procedures will be recorded in clinic notes after each treatment procedure.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Years to 14 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Children who are healthy and without any major medical conditions
  • Children who are patients at the Pediatric Oral Healthcare Center
  • Children requiring restoration on the occlusal surface that involves tooth preparation up to the dentin level in at least two primary or permanent molars or children requiring extractions of primary or permanent molars.
  • Children who are scheduled for at least two appointments and who require two restorative procedures or two extractions than can be scheduled over two separate appointments

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Children who have contraindications to local anesthetic
  • Children with teeth requiring restoration and have pulp involvement and root resorption on radiological examination (i.e. deep caries)
  • Children who have major medical problems
  • Children taking medications for major medical illnesses
  • Children who have pacemakers
  • Children with ADD/ADHD, autism or Down's syndrome and children with a history of behavioral issues that required previous management.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03779659


Contacts
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Contact: Jayapriyaa Shanmugham, BDS DrPH 617-358-4447 jshanmug@bu.edu
Contact: Athanasios Zavras, DDS DMedSc 617-358-3545 zavras@bu.edu

Locations
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United States, Massachusetts
BU Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118
Contact: Jayapriyaa Shanmugham, BDS DrPH    617-358-4447    jshanmug@bu.edu   
Contact: Athanasios Zavras, DDS DMedSc    617-358-3545    zavras@bu.edu   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Boston University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Jayapriyaa Shanmugham, BDS DrPH Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine

Publications:
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press. 1994.

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Responsible Party: Boston University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03779659    
Other Study ID Numbers: H-37546
First Posted: December 19, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 26, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Overall findings and summary of results for primary and secondary outcome measures will be made available.
Supporting Materials: Clinical Study Report (CSR)
Time Frame: Once data collection is complete and data analysis has been completed the results will be made available.
Access Criteria: Since this is a pilot study only summary data will be provided.

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: Yes
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Keywords provided by Boston University:
Electronic dental anesthesia
Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
Topical anesthesia
Analgesia
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Anesthetics
Benzocaine
Anesthetics, Local
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents