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Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation in Football Players

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03753321
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 26, 2018
Last Update Posted : April 11, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ioannis G. Fatouros, University of Thessaly

Brief Summary:
In a constant effort to find ways to make a quicker recovery between demanding workouts and football matches, this study is the first to investigate the benefits of protein supplementation, and compares two types of proteins, an animal-derived (whey) and a plant-derived (soy) protein, after an exercise-induced muscle injury caused by a speed endurance training protocol. Soy protein could be a cheaper and more environment-friendly alternative for athletes involved in high-velocity strength training.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Skeletal Muscle Damage Muscle Damage Athletic Performance Dietary Supplement: Whey protein Dietary Supplement: Soy protein Dietary Supplement: Placebo (maltodextrin) Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

A randomized, three-trial (placebo vs. whey protein isolate vs. soy protein isolate consumption), cross-over, double-blind design.

  1. A 1-week adaptive period: based on a dietary analysis, participants will be given a dietary plan [taking into account the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total daily physical activity related energy expenditure], providing a standard protein intake of 0.8-1 g protein/kg/day over the initial 1-week adaptive period. This protein intake is accepted as the average and population-safe protein intake during periods of very low physical activity and/or exercise levels. RMR, daily dietary intake and physical activity will be measured before the adaptive period. Familiarization with the training protocol will take place during this phase.
  2. Baseline performance testing: After the adaptive period and before the pre-loading phase of each trial, volunteers will participate in a performance testing procedure at University facilities. These measurements include:

    A) measurement of descriptor variables: body composition (DXA), b) VO2max, c) Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2), d) Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2), and e) tests of technical skill level B) Measurement of dependent variables: a) isokinetic strength (concentric, eccentric and isometric) of knee extensors and flexors of both lower limbs, b) counter movement jump height (CMJ), c) repeated sprint ability (RSA), d) speed (10 and 30 m), e) delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), f) blood sampling for measurement of lactate concentration, creatine kinase activity (CK) and inflammatory markers.

  3. Trial 1:

    • A 7-day Loading Phase: after baseline performance testing, volunteers will receive supplement 1. Participants will consume daily for the whole week 0,25 g/kg body weight (BW) one of the three supplements randomly (placebo, whey or soy protein).
    • On the 7th day, participants will repeat performance testing and blood sampling (2B).
    • On the 8th day, participants will perform the experimental protocol. During training, participants internal (heart rate) and external load (total distance, speed zones, acceleration and decelerations, impacts) will be monitored using heart rate monitors and global positioning system (GPS) instrumentation.
    • Immediately after the training protocol: measurement of blood lactate, CMJ and DOMS. Isometric strength testing and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) will be measured every hour for the first 3 hours of recovery.
    • 1-Day post-exercise: Blood sampling and measurement of dependent variables will take place at 24 hours of recovery.

    During trial, daily diet intake will be monitored so that participants will repeat the same feeding pattern during trials 2 and 3.

    • 2-Days post-exercise: Blood sampling and exercise training protocol will take place at 48 hours of recovery. Immediately post-exercise and every hour for the first 3 hours of recovery will be performed the measurements of dependent variables as described for the first bout.

  4. Wash-out period: 2-week without any activity or supplementation between trials 1 and 2.
  5. 2nd trial: repeat of stages 3 and 4.
  6. 3rd trial: repeat of stage 3.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 10 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Comparison of the Effect of Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation on Muscle Damage Markers and Performance After a Speed Endurance Training Protocol in Football Players
Actual Study Start Date : October 8, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 20, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : February 20, 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Whey protein
Whey protein isolate supplementation (7 day pre-loading phase and 3 day training phase), 0.25 g/kg body mass/day
Dietary Supplement: Whey protein
Whey protein isolate, 0.25 g/kg body weight/day for 10 days (7 days pre-loading and 3 days during trials 1 and 2

Experimental: Soy protein
Soy protein isolate supplementation (7 day pre-loading phase and 3 day training phase), 0.25 g/kg body mass/day
Dietary Supplement: Soy protein
Soy protein isolate, 0.25 g/kg body weight/day for 10 days (7 days pre-loading and 3 days during trials 1 and 2

Placebo Comparator: Placebo (maltodextrin)
Isoenergetic, maltodextrin (7 day pre-loading phase and 3 day training phase)
Dietary Supplement: Placebo (maltodextrin)
Isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin) for 10 days (7 days pre-loading and 3 days during trials 1 and 2




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in physical activity level during the match (duration of activities) [ Time Frame: Throughout the match in trial 1 and throughout the match in trial 2 ]
    Physical activity will be continuously recorded during both matches using global positioning system (GPS) technology

  2. Change in physical activity level during the match (intensity of activities) [ Time Frame: Throughout the match in trial 1 and throughout the match in trial 2 ]
    Physical activity will be continuously recorded during both matches using GPS technology

  3. Change in creatine kinase in plasma [ Time Frame: Preloading (Day 0); Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following trial 1 and 48 hours (Day 10 - trial 2) following trial 1 ]
    Concentration of creatine kinase will be measured in plasma

  4. Change in repeated Sprint Ability [ Time Frame: Preloading (Day 0); Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following trial 1 ]
    5 x 30 m sprints will be performed with 25 seconds rest in-between

  5. Change in countermovement jump (jump height in centimeters) [ Time Frame: Preloading (Day 0); Post-loading (Day 7); post-trial 1 (Day 8), 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10 - trial 2) following trial 1 ]
    Countermovement jump will be assessed on a contact platform

  6. Change in isokinetic strength of lower limbs [ Time Frame: Preloading (Day 0); Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following trial 1 ]
    Isokinetic strength will be assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer for both knee extensors and knee flexors at 60 degrees.

  7. Change in isometric strength of lower limbs [ Time Frame: Preloading (Day 0); Post-loading (Day 7); post-trial 1 (Day 8; 1, 2, 3 hours after trial 1), 48 hours (Day 10 - trial 2; 1, 2, 3 hours after trial 2) following trial 1 ]
    Isometric strength will be assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer for both knee extensors at 90 degrees and knee flexors at 30 degrees

  8. Change in delayed onset of muscle soreness [ Time Frame: Preloading (Day 0); Post-loading (Day 7); post-trial 1 (Day 8; immediately, 1, 2, 3 h after trial 1), 24 hours (Day 9), 48 hours following trial 1 (Day 10 - trial 2; immediately, 1, 2, 3 hours after trial 2) ]
    Muscle soreness will assessed during palpation of the muscle belly and the distal region of relaxed vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris following three repetitions of of a full squat. Subjects will rate their DOMS on a visual analogue scale (0-10). A score of O indicates no sign or symptom of DOMS, a score of 10 indicated severe signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). These signs and symptoms include dull, diffuse pain and tenderness; stiffness; swelling; and decreased strength of the exercised muscle.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Dietary intake [ Time Frame: Over a 7-day period at baseline. ]
    Dietary intake will be assessed using 7-day diet recalls.

  2. Concentration of blood lactate [ Time Frame: Pre- and Post-trial 1 (Day 8), Pre- and Post-trial 2 (Day 10; 48 hours following trial 1) ]
    Blood lactate will be measured using an automatic analyzer



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 25 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Playing at a competitive level (top three divisions) for ≥3 years
  • Free of any recent history of illnesses, musculoskeletal problems and metabolic diseases
  • No use of supplements and medications (for ≤6 months prior to the study)
  • Non-smokers

Exclusion Criteria:

  • A known milk intolerance or allergy
  • A recent febrile illness
  • History of muscle lesion
  • Lower limb trauma
  • Metabolic diseases.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03753321


Locations
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Greece
Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, University of Thessaly
Tríkala, Greece, 42100
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Thessaly
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Savvas Kritikos, MScc UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY, SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION & SPORTS SCIENCES

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Responsible Party: Ioannis G. Fatouros, Professor, University of Thessaly
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03753321     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: WHEY vs SOY PROTEIN - UTH
First Posted: November 26, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 11, 2019
Last Verified: April 2019

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No