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Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation in Football Players

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03753321
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 26, 2018
Last Update Posted : November 24, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ioannis G. Fatouros, University of Thessaly

Brief Summary:
In a constant effort to find ways to make a quicker recovery between demanding workouts and football matches, this study is the first to investigate the benefits of protein supplementation, and compares two types of proteins, an animal-derived (whey) and a plant-derived (soy) protein, after an exercise-induced muscle injury caused by a speed endurance training protocol. Soy protein could be a cheaper and more environment-friendly alternative for athletes involved in high-velocity strength training.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Skeletal Muscle Damage Muscle Damage Athletic Performance Dietary Supplement: Whey protein Dietary Supplement: Soy protein Dietary Supplement: Placebo (maltodextrin) Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 10 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Comparison of the Effect of Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation on Muscle Damage Markers and Performance After a Speed Endurance Training Protocol in Football Players
Actual Study Start Date : November 8, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 20, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : February 20, 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Whey protein
Whey protein isolate supplementation (7 day pre-loading phase and 3 day training phase). The protein dose will be individually adjusted to reach a total protein intake of 1.5 g protein/kg body mass/day.
Dietary Supplement: Whey protein
Whey protein isolate supplementation, individually adjusted to reach a total protein intake of 1.5 g/kg body weight/day for 10 days (7 days pre-loading and 3 days during trials 1 and 2)

Experimental: Soy protein
Soy protein isolate supplementation (7 day pre-loading phase and 3 day training phase). The protein dose will be individually adjusted to reach a total protein intake of 1.5 g protein/kg body mass/day.
Dietary Supplement: Soy protein
Soy protein isolate supplementation, individually adjusted to reach a total protein intake of 1.5 g/kg body weight/day for 10 days (7 days pre-loading and 3 days during trials 1 and 2)

Placebo Comparator: Placebo (maltodextrin)
Isoenergetic, maltodextrin (7 day pre-loading phase and 3 day training phase)
Dietary Supplement: Placebo (maltodextrin)
Isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin) for 10 days (7 days pre-loading and 3 days during trials 1 and 2




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in field activity during the speed-endurance production training (SEPT) [ Time Frame: Throughout the SEPT sessions in all trials ]
    Field activity will be continuously recorded during both SEPT sessions using global positioning system (GPS) technology

  2. Change in heart rate during the speed-endurance production training (SEPT) [ Time Frame: Throughout the SEPT sessions in all trials ]
    Heart rate will be continuously recorded during both SEPT sessions using heart rate monitors.

  3. Change in creatine kinase in plasma [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10) following SEPT session 1. ]
    Concentration of creatine kinase will be measured in plasma

  4. Change in repeated sprint ability (RSA) [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following SEPT session 1 ]
    5 x 30 m sprints will be performed with 25 seconds rest in-between

  5. Change in countermovement jump (jump height in centimeters) [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following SEPT session 1 ]
    Countermovement jump will be assessed on a contact platform

  6. Change in isokinetic strength of lower limbs [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following SEPT session 1 ]
    Isokinetic strength will be assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer for both knee extensors and knee flexors at 60 degrees.

  7. Change in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of lower limbs [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 1, 2 and 3 hours post-SEPT session 1; 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10) following SEPT session 1. ]
    MVIC will be assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extensors at 90 degrees and knee flexors at 30 degrees

  8. Change in delayed onset of muscle soreness [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10) following SEPT session 1. ]
    Muscle soreness will assessed during palpation of the muscle belly and the distal region of relaxed vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris following three repetitions of of a full squat. Subjects will rate their DOMS on a visual analogue scale (0-10). A score of O indicates no sign or symptom of DOMS, a score of 10 indicated severe signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). These signs and symptoms include dull, diffuse pain and tenderness; stiffness; swelling; and decreased strength of the exercised muscle.

  9. Change in total antioxidant capacity in plasma [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10) following SEPT session 1. ]
    Total antioxidant capacity will be measured in plasma

  10. Change in protein carbonyl levels in plasma [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10) following SEPT session 1. ]
    Protein carbonyl levels will be measured in plasma

  11. Change in GSH levels in red blood cell lysate [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) and 48 hours (Day 10) following SEPT session 1. ]
    GSH will be measured in red blood cell lysate

  12. Change in sprint time [ Time Frame: Baseline; Post-loading (Day 7); 24 hours (Day 9) following SEPT session 1 ]
    Sprint time will be assessed over a 10m and 30m distance using light cells.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Dietary intake [ Time Frame: Over a 7-day period at baseline. ]
    Dietary intake will be assessed using 7-day diet recalls.

  2. Concentration of blood lactate [ Time Frame: Pre- and Post-SEPT session 1 (Day 8), Pre- and Post-SEPT session 2 (Day 10) ]
    Blood lactate will be measured using an automatic analyzer

  3. Change in habitual physical activity [ Time Frame: Over a 7-day period at baseline ]
    Physical activity will be measured using 3-axial accelerometers

  4. Change in resting metabolic rate (RMR) [ Time Frame: At baseline. ]
    RMR will be measured using open-circuit indirect calorimeter with a ventilated hood system, after an overnight fast.

  5. Change in body composition [ Time Frame: At baseline. ]
    Body composition will be assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

  6. Change in maximal oxygen uptake [ Time Frame: At baseline. ]
    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) will be measured during a graded exercise testing on a treadmill, by using open-circuit spirometry with an automated online pulmonary gas exchange system, via breath-by-breath analysis.

  7. Change in soccer-specific conditioning. [ Time Frame: At baseline. ]
    Soccer-specific conditioning will be assessed using the the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test (Yo-Yo IE2) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2).



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 25 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Playing at a competitive level (top three divisions) for ≥3 years
  • Free of any recent history of illnesses, musculoskeletal problems and metabolic diseases
  • No use of supplements and medications (for ≤6 months prior to the study)
  • Non-smokers

Exclusion Criteria:

  • A known milk intolerance or allergy
  • A recent febrile illness
  • History of muscle lesion
  • Lower limb trauma
  • Metabolic diseases.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03753321


Locations
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Greece
Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, University of Thessaly
Tríkala, Greece, 42100
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Thessaly
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Savvas Kritikos, MScc UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY, SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION & SPORTS SCIENCES
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Ioannis G. Fatouros, Professor, University of Thessaly
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03753321    
Other Study ID Numbers: WHEY vs SOY PROTEIN - UTH
First Posted: November 26, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 24, 2020
Last Verified: November 2020

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No