Evaluation of Amlodipine Pharmacokinetics in Patients Receiving Hi Flux Hemodialysis
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The current study will evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in a cohort of 8 adult volunteers who are receiving regular hemodialysis treatment (HD) 3 days a week for 4 hours each day and have been taking a total daily dose of 5-10 mg of amlodipine besylate for >30 days as part of their usual care. Blood sampling will occur over 13 hours, with frequent sampling during HD and in the 4 hours after termination of HD treatment. The 8 subjects will all receive their prescribed total daily dose of 5-10 mg 5 hours prior to HD treatment. The pre-HD sample will also be sent for pharmacogenomics genotyping. Safety and pharmacodynamic assessments (blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) assessments) will be performed throughout the study. Axiom Precision Medicine Research Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) will be used to evaluate genotype of CYP3A4. CYP3A4 phenotype will be evaluated using the ratio of parent drug to metabolite. Non-compartmental analyses will be performed to compare maximum concentrations (Cmax), time to maximum concentration and area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable sample (AUClast) between the two phases. Compartmental analyses will be performed to construct a model to explain time-dependent changes in amlodipine clearance. Monte Carlo simulations will be performed to compare amlodipine pharmacokinetic profiles on and off HD.
Use pharmacokinetics to characterize the plasma concentration of amlodipine and its metabolite, 2-([4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl- 2-pyridyl]methoxy) acetic acid [ Time Frame: Pre-dialysis, during dialysis (30 minutes, 2 hours, end of treatment) and post-dialysis (30 minutes, 2 hours and 4 hours) ]
Use pharmacokinetics to characterize the change in plasma concentration of amlodipine and its metabolite, 2-([4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl- 2-pyridyl]methoxy) acetic acid during and after HD
Secondary Outcome Measures :
Characterize the Non-renal clearance phenotype and genotype [ Time Frame: 30 minutes ]
Evaluate the non-renal clearance of amlodipine in patients on HD.
Characterize the Post-dialysis Rebound [ Time Frame: post-dialysis (30 minutes, 2 hours and 4 hours) ]
Simulate change in predicted rebound of metoprolol concentrations
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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Ambulatory in-center hemodialysis patients
18 years of age or older
Indwelling tunneled catheter, AVF, AVG that is currently used for hemodialysis
Receiving in-center hemodialysis 3 days a week for 3-4.5 hours each treatment
Taking a total daily dose of 5-10 mg of amlodipine as prescribed by their physician
Hemoglobin ≥ 9.5 g/dL on most recent laboratory assessment prior to study
Any condition that would not allow for arm BP to be taken
Hemoglobin < 9.5 g/dL on most recent lab prior to study
Patient is on a CYP3A4 inhibitor (most common in HD population include: amiodarone, clarithromycin, cyclosporine, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, nefazodone, tamoxifen, verapamil, and grapefruit juice).