We're building a better ClinicalTrials.gov. Check it out and tell us what you think!
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

The Prevention Program for Alzheimer's Related Delirium (PREPARED) Trial (PREPARED)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03718156
Recruitment Status : Suspended (COVID-19 prevented us from continuing this study which involves active participation from long-term care front-line staff. More funding is being sought to continue our trial)
First Posted : October 24, 2018
Last Update Posted : July 15, 2022
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Machelle Wilchesky, McGill University

Brief Summary:
By the year 2038, over a million Canadians are expected to have Alzheimer's disease, a type of dementia. Dementia increases the risk of nursing home placement among the elderly more than fivefold. Given the exceptionally vulnerable nature of this patient population, there is a pressing need to ensure that the clinical care they receive is evidence-based, tailored specifically for them, and meeting the high standards of quality that would be expected in any other health-care setting. Delirium is a sudden and severe change in brain function that can cause a person to appear confused or disoriented, have memory loss, and have difficulties maintaining focus. It is an urgent care issue facing elderly patients residing in nursing homes, or long-term care (LTC) facilities. Delirium is a significant cause of illness and mortality, affecting between 10%-89% of LTC patients, but little research has focused on delirium prevention in the LTC setting. This study will assess the effectiveness of a LTC multicomponent delirium prevention program (PREPARED Trial intervention). The PREPARED Trial intervention is an intervention provided to nursing staff working in LTC facilities that consists of four components: a decision tree, an instruction manual, a training package, and a toolkit. The feasibility and acceptability of the PREPARED Trial intervention has already been successfully demonstrated; however, a thorough and well-designed large scale study is needed in order to confirm its ability to reduce delirium among LTC residents. In this study, approximately 40-50 LTC facilities will be randomized to either receive the PREPARED Trial intervention or to receive usual care. At the end of the 4-year study period, the investigators will be able to demonstrate the degree to which the PREPARED Trial intervention reduces: 1) the number of new cases of delirium; 2) delirium severity; and 3) the duration of delirium episodes. This study will provide the blueprint of a program that can be transferable to LTC facilities across Canada.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Delirium Dementia Other: PREPARED Trial Intervention Not Applicable

Show Show detailed description

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 800 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: The PREPARED Trial is a 4-year cluster randomized intervention study. A cluster design was adopted in order to prevent contamination across the intervention and control arms by nursing staff who may provide replacement hours of employment at different units/floors within their long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Participating LTCFs (clusters) will be assigned to either the PREPARED Trial intervention or the control (usual care) arm of the study using a covariate constrained randomization procedure. In addition, given the need to assess each resident weekly for a follow-up period of 18 weeks and logistical limitations (large geographical coverage, 40-50 LTCFs included, and limited work force), the investigators will employ a sequential approach whereby sets of clusters (LTCFs) will be randomized into the two study arms in consecutive 'waves' of follow-up lasting 18 weeks each. It is estimated that 4 waves of trial follow-up, comprised of 10-12 clusters each, will be completed.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Masking Description: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) cannot be blinded, as trial arm allocation will be obvious (those in the intervention group will undergo delirium prevention protocol training before their respective follow-up periods, and those in the control group will not). Similarly, research assistants (RAs) tasked with conducting resident assessments cannot be blinded to group allocation, as they will be constantly exposed to the everyday workings of participating LTCFs. However, RAs will be blinded to resident cognitive scores. All researchers analyzing the data will be blinded to group allocation, as LTCF names will be anonymized and randomization statuses will be concealed prior to data analysis.
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Prevention Program for Alzheimer's Related Delirium (PREPARED) Cluster Randomized Trial
Actual Study Start Date : June 23, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 2025
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 2026

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: PREPARED Trial Intervention
Participating nursing staff will be trained to apply the PREPARED Trial interventions, and will apply this knowledge to modify the therapeutic nursing plans of residents under their care who are enrolled in the study, accordingly.
Other: PREPARED Trial Intervention
Nursing staff members will be trained to adjust the therapeutic nursing plans (TNP) for residents enrolled in the study, as follows: 1) by providing optimal stimulation (surveying the use of eyeglasses and hearing aids, the room lighting and space organization; orienting the resident to time and space; and stimulating the resident using familiar objects, photos, and life histories); and 2) by assessing the presence of 4 modifiable delirium risk factors (antipsychotic use, sensory impairment, restraint use, and dehydration) and taking specific actions once a given risk factor is identified. For instance, if physical restraints are used, the TNP will require that they are to be removed during care when a caregiver is present (nail care, feeding, and wound care).

No Intervention: Care as Usual
Participating nursing staff will only be provided with general information about delirium, but will not be trained or instructed to modify the therapeutic nursing plans that are in place for residents enrolled in the study. However, at the end of the follow-up period, nursing staff in the control arm will be provided with the PREPARED Trial intervention training program (including bedside coaching), which they can then use after the study has ended at their facility.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of delirium [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) scores

  2. Delirium severity [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    Delirium Index scores (0-21)

  3. Delirium episode duration [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    the total number of days that a given resident experiences active episode(s) of delirium

  4. Number of delirium episodes [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    count of delirium episodes

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Delirium motoric subtype [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    Delirium Motor Subtype Scale scores

  2. Number of falls [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    count of falls and fall-related injuries, as documented in medical charts

  3. Time to first fall [ Time Frame: over the 18 week follow-up period ]
    days to first reported fall

  4. Change in functional autonomy [ Time Frame: over the study period (18 weeks) ]
    Barthel Index (Shah version) scores

  5. Change in cognitive functioning [ Time Frame: over the study period (18 weeks) ]
    Hierarchic Dementia Scale scores

  6. Change in level of social engagement [ Time Frame: over the study period (18 weeks) ]
    Revised Index of Social Engagement in Long-Term Care Facilities scores

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   65 Years and older   (Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • has dementia and/or cognitive impairment (as determined by discussions with the nursing staff and chart abstraction);
  • a minimum length of stay in the LTC institution of at least two weeks prior to the start of the baseline assessments;
  • at high risk of delirium, as indicated by a score of 3 or higher on a validated 5-item delirium risk screening tool;
  • delirium-free at baseline, as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), the Delirium Index (DI) and a brief chart review over a screening period of two consecutive weeks.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • unable to communicate verbally in English or French (as determined by either the nursing staff or two consecutive 0-score administrations of the composite cognitive interview at screening);
  • has a history of specific psychiatric conditions (bipolar disorder, depression with signs of psychosis, and psychotic disorders) or intellectual disability;
  • is receiving comfort/end-of-life care.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03718156

Layout table for location information
Association des établissements privés conventionnés
Montréal, Canada
Integrated University Health and Social Services Centre for East Montreal
Montréal, Canada
Integrated University Health and Social Services Centre for North Montreal
Montréal, Canada
Integrated University Health and Social Services Centre for South-Central Montreal
Montréal, Canada
Integrated University Health and Social Services Centre for West Montreal
Montréal, Canada
Integrated University Health and Social Services Centre for West-Central Montreal
Montréal, Canada
Sponsors and Collaborators
McGill University
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Machelle Wilchesky, PhD McGill University
Study Chair: Philippe Voyer, Inf. PhD Laval University
Study Chair: Nathalie Champoux, MD, MSc Université de Montréal
Study Chair: Antonio Ciampi, PhD McGill University
Study Chair: Ovidiu Lungu, PhD Université de Montréal
Study Chair: Jane McCusker, MD, PhD McGill University
Study Chair: Johanne Monette, MD, MSc Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research
Study Chair: T.T. Minh Vu, MD, FRCPC Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
Allison PD (1995) Survival analysis using SAS: A practical guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute. Inc.
Klein J. ea (2003) Survival Analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.
Therneau TM, Grambsch PM (2000) Modeling survival data: extending the Cox model: Springer Science & Business Media.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Machelle Wilchesky, Assistant Professor, McGill University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03718156    
Other Study ID Numbers: PT 71435
First Posted: October 24, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 15, 2022
Last Verified: July 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

Layout table for additional information
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Machelle Wilchesky, McGill University:
long-term care
cluster randomized trial
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Neurocognitive Disorders
Mental Disorders
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Neurologic Manifestations