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Buprenorphine Pharmacometric Open Label Research Study of Drug Exposure (B-PHORE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03608696
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 1, 2018
Last Update Posted : July 12, 2019
Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Thomas Jefferson University

Brief Summary:
Neonatal withdrawal syndrome is a series of signs and symptoms in infants exposed to opioids in utero. Buprenorphine has demonstrated a 40% reduction in length of pharmacologic treatment compared to oral morphine. These results were with an empirically derived dose. This study will use pharmacokinetic modeling-informed dosing to clarify the dose/response relationship and use a rational approach to define an optimal dose regimen. The clinical trial will be open label, single arm design with a goal of initial testing of a new dosing regimen.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Neonatal Opiate Withdrawal Syndrome Drug: Buprenorphine Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:

The overall rationale for this study is to explore new dose regimens in a small number of patients. There is evidence from pharmacometric models with dose simulation that suggest there is room for improvement in buprenorphine dosing. This study will explore these doses. While the endpoint will be primarily pharmacokinetic, it is likely that the revised dose regimen will be more effective and thus holds the potential for benefit for those infants participating. This information will be used to feed back to the model and generate rationally derived, optimal doses to be tested in subsequent efficacy trials.

The neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a set of signs of withdrawal in an infant with in utero exposure to opioids. Cardinal manifestations include increased muscle tone, autonomic instability, irritability, poor sucking reflex, gastrointestinal symptoms, and impaired weight gain. All infants are treated with non-pharmacologic methods such as swaddling, rooming in with mother and minimization of stimuli. Despite these measures, ~50% of infants require pharmacologic treatment to ensure proper growth and development. While the optimal pharmacologic treatment for NAS has not been identified, expert review identifies an opioid as the primary therapy. In the US 80% of infants are treated with morphine and 20% with methadone. Sublingual buprenorphine has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in an open label phase 1 clinical trial conducted by the Thomas Jefferson University Team [NCT00521248]. These data were used to plan the BBORN (Blinded Buprenorphine OR Neonatal morphine solution) clinical trial [NCT01452789] comparing buprenorphine to morphine for NAS. BBORN demonstrated a 40% reduction in length of treatment compared to morphine in a double blind fashion (New England Journal of Medicine, June 2017). The external validity of this finding has been supported by retrospective examination of buprenorphine used in a treatment paradigm at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, with a reduction in length of treatment of ~30% in >200 infants.

Dose selection for both the phase 1 trial and the efficacy trial (BBORN) were empirically derived. A population pharmacokinetic model for buprenorphine in NAS has been published by our group. In addition a pre-specified endpoint for the BBORN trial was a pharmacokinetic analysis of buprenorphine. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model from the BBORN study has been published (Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, March 2018). The time to control of symptoms was directly tied to buprenorphine exposure, which itself appeared to be driven primarily by clearance. Among the strengths of pharmacometric models is the ability to simulate in silico many potential dose regimens. In this manner, a dose regimen can be chosen that is more likely to be in the desired range of concentrations. This approach also allows for incorporation of covariates of drug exposure or response to treatment. This is much safer and efficient than the traditional approach of choosing an empiric dose that would need to be tested in clinical trial. An ideal dose would quickly reach this exposure while maintaining a good safety margin. There was no evidence of decline in respiratory rate in infants treated with higher doses of buprenorphine compared to lower doses, or those treated with buprenorphine compared to those treated with morphine. This may allow a higher initial dose to more quickly reach therapeutic buprenorphine concentrations. This ultimately could lead to shorter lengths of treatment and stay, though achieving this goal is outside of the scope of the current proposed project.

In summary, buprenorphine at the dose and schedule used in prior clinical trials has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. The goal of the proposed study is to simulate a dose of sublingual buprenorphine for NAS using pharmacometric modelling techniques. This dose will be tested in infants requiring treatment for NAS. Pharmacokinetic samples would be collected and used to confirm and refine the pharmacokinetic model. The proposed study would allow broad examination and refinement of the exposure/response relationship. This optimized dose could later be used in an efficacy trial.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 10 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Modeled Dose Exposure of Sublingual Buprenorphine in the Neonatal Opioid Abstinence Syndrome
Actual Study Start Date : August 29, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 11, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : July 11, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: buprenorphine

Buprenorphine 0.075 mg ml sublingual solution

Initial daily dose 24 mcg/kg/day Initial unit dose 8 mcg/kg q8 hours Maximum daily dose 75 mcg/kg/day Maximum unit dose 25 mcg/kg q8 hours Up-titration rate 33% Maximum # of up-titrations 4 Weaning rate 15% Cessation (bottom) dose < Initial dose Dosing interval until bottom dose (hrs) 8 Dose interval extension #1 at bottom dose (hrs) 12 Dose interval extension #2 at bottom dose (hrs) 24

Drug: Buprenorphine
buprenorphine 0.075 mg/ml solution

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Buprenorphine pharmacokinetics [ Time Frame: Duration of pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome up to 70 days of age ]
    Goal is to define buprenorphine pharmacokinetic exposure (Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC)) in infants treated with buprenorphine for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) using a model-based optimized dose.

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Number of Participants with Treatment Related Adverse Events [ Time Frame: Duration of pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome, up to 70 days of age ]
    The number of participants with treatment related adverse events

  2. Length of treatment [ Time Frame: Duration of pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome up to 70 days of age ]
    Length of treatment with buprenrophine for NAS (hours) of a model-based optimized dose of buprenorphine for infants treated for NAS.

  3. Urinary metabolites [ Time Frame: Duration of pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome up to 70 days of age ]
    The urinary glucuronidated metabolites of buprenorphine will be identified and quantified

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 4 Weeks   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. ≥ 36 weeks gestation
  2. Exposure to opioids in utero
  3. Demonstration of signs and symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome requiring pharmacologic treatment

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Major congenital malformations and/or intrauterine growth retardation, defined as birth weight <2000 gm
  2. Medical illness requiring intensification of medical therapy. This includes but is not limited to suspected sepsis requiring antibiotic therapy.
  3. Hypoglycemia requiring treatment with intravenous dextrose
  4. Bilirubin >20 mg/dL (The need for phototherapy is not exclusionary)
  5. Inability of mother to give informed consent due to co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03608696

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United States, Pennsylvania
Thomas Jefferson University Hosptial
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107
Sponsors and Collaborators
Thomas Jefferson University
Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.
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Principal Investigator: Walter K Kraft, MD Thomas Jefferson University
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Responsible Party: Thomas Jefferson University Identifier: NCT03608696    
Other Study ID Numbers: 18C.272
First Posted: August 1, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 12, 2019
Last Verified: July 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Plan Description: The sharing plan has not yet been defined

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Thomas Jefferson University:
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Pathologic Processes
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Analgesics, Opioid
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Narcotic Antagonists