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Baby's First Years (BFY)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03593356
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : July 20, 2018
Last Update Posted : November 3, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Columbia University
University of Wisconsin, Madison
New York University
University of Maryland
University of Nebraska
University of Minnesota
University of New Orleans
University of Michigan
Duke University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of California, Irvine

Brief Summary:
Recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggest that experiences early in life have profound and enduring influences on the developing brain. Family economic resources shape the nature of many of these experiences, yet the extent to which they affect children's development is unknown. Our team of neuroscientists, economists and developmental psychologists proposes to fill important gaps in scientific knowledge about the role of economic resources in early development by evaluating the first randomized controlled trial to determine whether unconditional cash gift payments have a causal effect on the cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development of infants and toddlers in low-income U.S. families. Specifically, 1,000 mothers of infants with incomes below the federal poverty line from four diverse U.S. communities will receive monthly cash gift payments by debit card for the first 76 months of the child's life. Parents in the experimental group will receive $333 per month ($4,000 per year), whereas parents in the active comparator group will receive a nominal monthly payment of $20. In order to understand the impacts of the added income on children's cognitive and behavioral development, the investigators will assess experimental/active comparator group differences at age 4 (our capstone lab assessment was postponed from age 3 to age 4 due to Covid-19) and, for a subset of measures, age 2 and age 3 via maternal survey, on measures of cognitive, language, memory, self-regulation and socio-emotional development. Brain circuitry may be sensitive to the effects of early experience even before early behavioral differences can be detected. In order to understand the impacts of added income on children's brain functioning at age 4, the investigators will assess, during a lab visit, experimental/active comparator group differences in measures of brain activity (electroencephalogram [EEG]). To understand how family economic behavior, parenting, and parent stress and well-being change in response to income enhancement, the investigators will assess experimental/active comparator differences in family expenditures, food insecurity, housing and neighborhood quality; family routines and time use; parent stress, mental health and cognition; parenting practices; and child care arrangements at child age 2 and age 3, for a subset of these measures, child age 1. This study will thus provide the first definitive understanding of the extent to which income plays a causal role in determining early child cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development among low-income families.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Child Development Brain Development Household and Family Processes Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $333 Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $20 Not Applicable

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Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1000 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Parallel assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Masking Description: Researchers know about amount of cash payment subjects receive at the point of enrollment because they assist subjects with credit card activation and instructions. For follow-up assessments at age 1, 2, 3, 4 interviewers will be blind to the extent possible.
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Household Income and Child Development in the First Three Years of Life
Actual Study Start Date : May 9, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 30, 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 31, 2024

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
These subjects receive $333 each month for 76 months via debit card.
Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
These subjects receive $333 each month for 76 months via debit card.

Active Comparator: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
These subjects receive $20 each month for 76 months via debit card.
Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
These subjects receive $20 each month for 76 months via debit card.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Child Language Development: Vocabulary [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT).

    Minimum raw value: 0; Maximum raw value: 111. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    References:

    Martin, N. A., & Brownell, R. (2011). ROWPVT-4: Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test.


  2. Child Language Development: Maternal Concern for Language Delay [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by the sum of the two questions listed below included in the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS):

    1. Do you have any concerns about how your child talks and makes speech sounds? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little)
    2. Do you have any concerns about how your child understands what you say? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little)".

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 2. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.


  3. Child Executive Function & Behavioral Regulation: Executive Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Executive Function measured by Minnesota Executive Function Scale.

    Minimum score: 60; Maximum score: 140. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Executive Function & Behavioral Regulation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Carlson, S.M. (2017). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Technical report.

    Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Test Manual. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.


  4. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior/Problems [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Behavior/Problems measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 82. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in review, 21(8), 265-271.


  5. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior/Problems [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Behavior/Problems measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 82. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    Reference:

    Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in review, 21(8), 265-271.


  6. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Maternal Concern for Behavioral and Social-Emotional Problems [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by the sum of the two questions listed below, which are part of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS):

    1. Do you have any concerns about how your child behaves? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little)
    2. Do you have any concerns about how your child gets along with others? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 2. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.


  7. Child Intelligence Quotient [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability.

    Minimum score: 10; Maximum score: 90. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    Reference:

    Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.


  8. Child Brain Function: Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by high-density in-lab electroencephalography (see attached analysis plan for more details).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff-Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.

    Otero, G. A., Pliego-Rivero, F. B., Fernández, T., & Ricardo, J. E. E. G. (2003). EEG developmen


  9. Child Health, Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™).

    Minimum score: 3; Maximum score: 20. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    Reference:

    Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.


  10. Child Health, Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 3; Maximum score: 14. Higher score indicates a worse outcome.

    Reference:

    Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.


  11. Diagnosis of Developmental Condition [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by one dichotomous survey item (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates a worse outcome.

    Reference:

    Study PIs


  12. School Achievement and Behavior: School Test Scores for Target Child [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data of target child's test scores.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Child Language Development: Language Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Language Milestones measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)- Communication Subscale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Squires, J., Bricker, D. D., & Twombly, E. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


  2. Child Language Development: Vocabulary [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Communicative Development measured by Short Form Versions of MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Fenson, L. (2000). Short-form versions of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 95 - 116.


  3. Child Executive Function: Executive Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by the pencil tap test.

    Minimum value: 0; Maximum value: 16. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Executive Function outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Diamond, A., & Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: development of the abilities to remember what I said and to "do as I say, not as I do". Developmental psychobiology, 29(4), 315-334.


  4. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Behavior measured by NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Mother-Child Interaction Task (positive/negative mood, activity level, sustained attention, positive engagement). (Due to funding limitations, this was not feasible to code, and we have no immediate plans to do so).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Griffin, J. A., et al. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health. Adapted script from mother-child-interaction at 15 months.


  5. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)- Problem Scale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.


  6. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Briggs-Gowan, et al. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.


  7. Child Pre-Literacy [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Pre-Literacy measured by The Reading House.

    Minimum value: 0; Maximum value: 14. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    Reference:

    Hutton, et al. (2019). The Reading House: A Children's Book for Emergent Literacy Screening During Well-Child Visits. Pediatrics, 143 (6): e20183843. 10.1542/peds.2018-3843

    Hutton et al. (2021). Validation of The Reading House and Association With Cortical Thickness. Pediatrics, 147(3), e20201641. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1641


  8. Child Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by EEG

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff-Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.

    Otero, G. A., Pliego-Rivero, F. B., Fernández, T., & Ricardo, J. E. E. G. (2003). EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(10), 1918-1925.

    Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., & Group, B. C. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1327-1338.


  9. Child Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by EEG.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff-Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.

    Otero, G. A., Pliego-Rivero, F. B., Fernández, T., & Ricardo, J. E. E. G. (2003). EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(10), 1918-1925.

    Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., & Group, B. C. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1327-1338.


  10. Child Task-Related Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Auditory Discrimination Brain Function measured by mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP with larger differences between standard and deviant stimulus in high-cash gift group compared to the low-cash gift group.

    References:

    Cheour, M., Leppänen, P. H., & Kraus, N. (2000). Mismatch negativity (MMN) as a tool for investigating auditory discrimination and sensory memory in infants and children. Clinical neurophysiology, 111(1), 4-16.

    Garcia-Sierra, A., et al.. (2011). Bilingual language learning: An ERP study relating early brain responses to speech, language input, and later word production. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 546-557.

    Kuhl, P. K., et al.. (2005). Links between social and linguistic processing of speech in preschool children with autism: behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Developmental science, 8(1), F1-F12.


  11. Child Health: Body Mass Index (BMI) [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by CDC BMI percentage scales.

    Reference:

    Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.


  12. Child Health, Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by hair cortisol concentration.

    Reference:

    Ursache, A., Merz, E. C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K. G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.

    Meyer, J., Novak, M., Hamel, A., & Rosenberg, K. (2014). Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair. Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE, (83).

    Davenport, M. D., Tiefenbacher, S., Lutz, C. K., Novak, M. A., & Meyer, J. S. (2006). Analysis of endogenous cortisol concentrations in the hair of rhesus macaques. General and comparative endocrinology, 147(3), 255-261.


  13. Child Health, Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]

    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™)

    Reference:

    Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.


  14. Child Health, Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™)

    Reference:

    Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.


  15. Child Health, Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 1 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.


  16. Child Health, Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 3 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.


  17. Child Health, Overall Health, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by an index of survey items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37


  18. Child Epigenetic Pace of Aging [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document.

    Reference:

    Belsky, W. D. et al. (2020). Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through blood test, the DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm. eLife 9:e54870. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.54870

    Belsky, W. D. et al. (2022). DunedinPACE, a DNA methylation biomarker of the pace of aging. eLife 11:e73420. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.73420


  19. Child DNA Methylation [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document.

    Reference:

    McCartney, D.L., Hillary, R.F., Conole, E.L.S. et al. Blood-based epigenome-wide analyses of cognitive abilities. Genome Biol 23, 26 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02596-5


  20. Child Nutrition: Consumption of healthy foods [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an index of survey items (see Appendix Table 3 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Los Angeles County WIC Survey. (2017). Retrievable from: http://lawicdata.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/WIC-Parents-Quex-English-FINAL.pdf


  21. Child Nutrition: Consumption of unhealthy foods [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an index of survey items (see Appendix Table 3 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Los Angeles County WIC Survey. (2017). Retrievable from: http://lawicdata.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/WIC-Parents-Quex-English-FINAL.pdf


  22. Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay: Total "predictive concerns" in the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by the total number of maternal-reported concerns that are "predictive of developmental delay" in the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 5. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.


  23. Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay: Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by the total score across categories of components of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), which includes 10 survey items.

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 10. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.


  24. School Achievement and Behavior: School Test Scores for Target Child's Siblings [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  25. School Achievement and Behavior: Student Behavioral Data for Target Child [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  26. School Achievement and Behavior: Student Behavioral Data for Target Child's Siblings [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  27. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  28. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  29. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  30. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  31. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  32. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  33. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 9. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  34. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  35. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  36. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  37. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 9. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  38. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  39. Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of 10 items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference: study PIs


  40. Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of 10 items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference: study PIs


  41. Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of 10 items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 5.

    Reference: study PIs


  42. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  43. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's full-time reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  44. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  45. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  46. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  47. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Labor Market Participation [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  48. Maternal Earnings [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Mother's Earnings in the previous calendar year

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)


  49. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures since birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Child-Focused Expenditures since birth measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  50. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  51. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  52. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  53. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  54. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  55. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  56. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  57. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  58. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  59. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  60. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  61. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  62. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  63. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  64. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 6. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  65. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items(see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  66. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  67. Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  68. Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  69. Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  70. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  71. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  72. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  73. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  74. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  75. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  76. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  77. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  78. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.


  79. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf


  80. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.


  81. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf


  82. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 32. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.


  83. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf


  84. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires


  85. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires


  86. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 1; Maximum score: 3. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires


  87. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.


  88. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.


  89. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale.

    Minimum score: 10; Maximum score: 30. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.


  90. Maternal Physiological Stress: Maternal Hair Cortisol [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by maternal hair cortisol.

    Reference:

    Ursache, A., Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.


  91. Maternal Physiological Stress: Maternal Hair Cortisol [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by maternal hair cortisol.

    Reference:

    Ursache, A., Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.


  92. Maternal Mental Resources: Maternal Cognitive Resources [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by the Minnesota Executive Function Scale.

    Minimum score: 60; Maximum score: 140. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    Reference:

    Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Test Manual. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.

    Carlson, S. M. (2017). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Technical Report, v. 2. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.


  93. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8).

    Min value: 0; Max value: 24

    Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  94. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8).

    Min value: 0; Max value: 24

    Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  95. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8).

    Min value: 0; Max value: 24. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  96. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8).

    Min value: 0; Max value: 24. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  97. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education


  98. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the GAD-7.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092


  99. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the GAD-7.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092


  100. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory.

    Min value: 0; Max value: 44. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education


  101. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the GAD-7.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092


  102. Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  103. Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 8. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  104. Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  105. Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 4. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  106. Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale.

    Reference:

    Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.


  107. Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale.

    Reference:

    Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.


  108. Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  109. Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  110. Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  111. Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  112. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  113. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a dichotomous indicator generated from an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items and cutoff point for high or low quality).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  114. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by a dichotomous indicator generated from an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items and cutoff point for high or low quality).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  115. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured by a dichotomous indicator generated from an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items and cutoff point for high or low quality).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  116. Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.


  117. Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome measured during the same wave cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.


  118. Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  119. Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 3; Maximum score: 15. Higher score indicates a better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  120. Maternal Physical Health: Body Mass Index [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Body Mass Index measured by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts.

    Reference:

    Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.


  121. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Adult Word Count [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Adult Word Count measured by LENA Processing Software.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  122. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Conversational Turns [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Conversational Turns measured by LENA Processing Software.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  123. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured using PICCOLO coding of parenting behaviors from three sub-scales (affection, responsiveness, encouragement and teaching) with responses ranging from 0: absent, 1: barely, 2: clearly. Parent child interaction task and script adapted from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Roggman, et al. (2013). Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) Of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290-306.

    Griffin, J. A., & Friedman, S. L. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health

    Belsky, J., et al. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care?. Child development, 78(2), 681-701.


  124. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured using PICCOLO coding of parenting behaviors from three sub-scales (affection, responsiveness, encouragement and teaching) with responses ranging from 0: absent, 1: barely, 2: clearly. Parent child interaction task and script adapted from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    Reference:

    Roggman, et al. (2013). Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) Of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290-306.

    Griffin, J. A., & Friedman, S. L. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health

    Belsky, J., et al. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care?. Child development, 78(2), 681-701.


  125. Maternal Epigenetic Pace of Aging [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document.

    Reference:

    Belsky, W. D. et al. (2020). Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through blood test, the DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm. eLife 9:e54870. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.54870

    Belsky, W. D. et al. (2022). DunedinPACE, a DNA methylation biomarker of the pace of aging. eLife 11:e73420. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.73420


  126. Maternal DNA Methylation [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document.

    Reference:

    McCartney, D.L., Hillary, R.F., Conole, E.L.S. et al. Blood-based epigenome-wide analyses of cognitive abilities. Genome Biol 23, 26 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02596-5


  127. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.


  128. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.


  129. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 4; Maximum score: 20. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    Reference:

    Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.


  130. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Time on Mother-Focal Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items where number of days spent doing activity is multiplied by the number of minutes reported doing activity per day (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Frequency of Parent-Child Activity outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.


  131. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Child Meal and Sleep Routine Index [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]

    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0 Maximum score: 2. Higher score indicates better outcome.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Frequency of Parent-Child Activity outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Study PIs


  132. Maternal Discipline: Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.


  133. Maternal Discipline; Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 4 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.


  134. Maternal Discipline; Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 6 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome.

    Reference:

    Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.




Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   Eligibility: Mothers who just gave birth
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. mother 18 years or older;
  2. household income below the federal poverty threshold in the calendar year prior to the interview, counting the newborn;
  3. infant admitted to the newborn nursery and not requiring admittance to the intensive care unit;
  4. residence in the state of recruitment;
  5. mother not "highly likely" to move to a different state or country in the next 12 months;
  6. infant to be discharged in the custody of the mother;
  7. English or Spanish speaking (necessary for administration of instruments used to measure some of the child outcomes)

Exclusion Criteria:

Mothers will not be eligible unless all of the above seven criteria are met.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03593356


Locations
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United States, New York
12 hospitals in the following four metropolitan areas: New York, Omaha, New Orleans, and Twin Cities
New York, New York, United States, 10027
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Irvine
Columbia University
University of Wisconsin, Madison
New York University
University of Maryland
University of Nebraska
University of Minnesota
University of New Orleans
University of Michigan
Duke University
Investigators
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Study Director: Greg Duncan, PhD University of California, Irvine
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by University of California, Irvine:
Study Protocol  [PDF] June 27, 2019
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] June 27, 2022
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] June 27, 2022

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: University of California, Irvine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03593356    
Other Study ID Numbers: NIH R01HD087384 [2016-3336]
First Posted: July 20, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 3, 2022
Last Verified: October 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by University of California, Irvine:
Poverty
Income
Child Development
Brain Development