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Baby's First Years (BFY)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03593356
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : July 20, 2018
Last Update Posted : October 14, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Columbia University
University of Wisconsin, Madison
New York University
University of Maryland, College Park
University of Nebraska
University of Minnesota
University of New Orleans
University of Michigan
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Greg Duncan, University of California, Irvine

Brief Summary:
Recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggest that experiences early in life have profound and enduring influences on the developing brain. Family economic resources shape the nature of many of these experiences, yet the extent to which they affect children's development is unknown. Our team of neuroscientists, economists and developmental psychologists proposes to fill important gaps in scientific knowledge about the role of economic resources in early development by evaluating the first randomized controlled trial to determine whether unconditional cash gift payments have a causal effect on the cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development of infants and toddlers in low-income U.S. families. Specifically, 1,000 mothers of infants with incomes below the federal poverty line from four diverse U.S. communities will receive monthly cash gift payments by debit card for the first 40 months of the child's life. Parents in the experimental group will receive $333 per month ($4,000 per year), whereas parents in the active comparator group will receive a nominal monthly payment of $20. In order to understand the impacts of the added income on children's cognitive and behavioral development, the investigators will assess experimental/active comparator group differences at age 3 (and, for a subset of measures, age 2) on measures of cognitive, language, memory, self-regulation and socio-emotional development. Brain circuitry may be sensitive to the effects of early experience even before early behavioral differences can be detected. In order to understand the impacts of added income on children's brain functioning at age 3, the investigators will assess, during a lab visit, experimental/active comparator group differences in measures of brain activity (electroencephalogram [EEG]). To understand how family economic behavior, parenting, and parent stress and well-being change in response to income enhancement, the investigators will assess experimental/active comparator differences in family expenditures, food insecurity, housing and neighborhood quality; family routines and time use; parent stress, mental health and cognition; parenting practices; and child care arrangements at child age 2 and, for a subset of these measures, child age 1. This study will thus provide the first definitive understanding of the extent to which income plays a causal role in determining early child cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development among low-income families.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Child Development Brain Development Household and Family Processes Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $333 Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $20 Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

One thousand infants born to mothers with incomes falling below the federal poverty threshold in four metropolitan areas in the United States are being assigned at random within metropolitan area to experimental or active comparator groups. The sites are: New York City, the greater New Orleans metropolitan area, the greater Omaha metropolitan area, and the Twin Cities. IRB and recruiting issues will likely lead to a distribution of the 1,000 mothers across sites of 115 in one site (the Twin Cities) and 295 in each of the three other sites. Experimental group mothers (40% of all mothers) will receive unconditioned cash payments of $333 per month ($4,000 per year) for 40 months. The active comparator group (60% of all mothers) receives a nominal payment - $20 per month, delivered in the same way and also for 40 months.

Mothers are being recruited in maternity wards of the 12 participating hospitals shortly after giving birth and, after consenting, are administered a 30-minute baseline interview. The three follow-up waves of data collection conducted at child ages 1, 2 and 3 will provide information about family functioning as well as developmentally appropriate measures of children's cognitive and behavioral development. the investigators will collect information about the mother and child in the home when the child is 12 and 24 months of age. At age 3, mothers and children will be assessed and interviewed in research laboratories at each site. The investigators will additionally collect state and local administrative data regarding parental employment, utilization of public benefits such as Medicaid and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Programs (SNAP), and any involvement in child protective services. The investigators also have plans to randomly sample 80 of the 1,000 families to participate in an in-depth qualitative study, but do not elaborate on those plans in this document.

The compensation difference between families in the experimental and active comparator groups will boost family incomes by $3,760 per year, an amount shown in economics and developmental psychology to be associated with socially significant and policy relevant improvements in children's school achievement. After accounting for likely attrition, our total sample size of 800 at age 3 years, divided 40%/60% between experimental and active comparator groups, provides sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful differences in cognitive, emotional and brain functioning, and key dimensions of family context (see below).

Cognitive and emotional development measures will be gathered at 12, 24, and 36 months of age. At the age-three lab visit the investigators will administer validated, reliable and developmentally sensitive measures of language, memory, executive functioning and socioemotional skills. The investigators will also collect direct measures of young children's brain development at ages 1 and 3.

The family process measures that the investigators will gather are based on two theories of change surrounding the income supplements: that increased investment and reduced stress will facilitate children's healthy development. The investigators will obtain data measuring both of these pathways annually. Investment pathway: Additional resources enable parents to buy goods and services for their families and children that support cognitive development. These include higher quality housing, nutrition and non-parental child care; more cognitively stimulating home environments and learning opportunities outside of the home; and, by reducing or restructuring work hours, more parental time spent with children. Stress pathway: A second pathway is that additional economic resources may reduce parents' own stress and improve their mental health. This may allow parents to devote more positive attention to their children, thus providing a more predictable family life, less conflicted relationships, and warmer and more responsive interactions.


Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1000 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Parallel assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Masking Description: Researchers know about amount of cash payment subjects receive at the point of enrollment because they assist subjects with credit card activation and instructions. For follow-up assessments at age 1, 2, 3 interviewers will be blind to the extent possible.
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Household Income and Child Development in the First Three Years of Life
Actual Study Start Date : May 9, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 1, 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 31, 2022

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
These subjects receive $333 each month for 40 months via debit card.
Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
These subjects receive $333 each month for 40 months via debit card.

Active Comparator: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
These subjects receive $20 each month for 40 months via debit card.
Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
These subjects receive $20 each month for 40 months via debit card.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Child Language Development: Language Processing [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by Quick Interactive Language Screener (QUILS)- language processing subscale (following piloting)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Golinkoff, R. M., De Villiers, J. G., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Iglesias, A., Wilson, M. S., Morini, G., & Brezack, N. (2017). User's Manual for the Quick Interactive Language Screener.


  2. Child Executive Function & Self-Regulation: Executive Function [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Executive Function measured by one of:

    Minnesota Executive Function Scale OR WPPSI-IV- Working Memory Subscale OR Executive Functions Touch (following piloting)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Reflection Sciences. (2017). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Technical report.

    Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Test Manual. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.

    Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence—fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

    Willoughby, M., & Blair, C. (2011). Test-retest reliability of a new executive function battery for use in early childhood. Child Neuropsychology,17 (6), 564-579. doi:10.1080/


  3. Child Executive Function & Self-Regulation: Self-Regulation [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Self-Regulation measured by the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment- PSRA (parent report and child assessment)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Smith-Donald, R., Raver, C. C., Hayes, T., & Richardson, B. (2007). Preliminary construct and concurrent validity of the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (PSRA) for field-based research. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(2), 173-187.


  4. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)- Problem Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.


  5. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior/Problems [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Behavior/Problems measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in review, 21(8), 265-271.


  6. Child Intelligence Quotient [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-fourth edition (WPPSI-IV)

    Reference:

    Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence—fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.


  7. Child Brain Function: Resting Brain Function (Alpha, Gamma and Theta power) [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by EEG

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff‐Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.

    Otero, G. A., Pliego-Rivero, F. B., Fernández, T., & Ricardo, J. E. E. G. (2003). EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(10), 1918-1925.

    Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., & Group, B. C. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1327-1338.


  8. Child Health: Body Mass Index (BMI) [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by CDC scales

    Reference:

    Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.


  9. Child Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™)

    Reference:

    Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.


  10. Child Health: Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 1 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items).

    Reference:

    Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.


  11. School Achievement and Behavior: School Test Scores for Target Child [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data of target child's test scores

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  12. Maternal Physiological Stress: Maternal Hair Cortisol [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by maternal hair cortisol

    Reference:

    Ursache, A., Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.


  13. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured using Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO™) to code NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Mother-Child Interaction Task (adapted script)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Roggman, L.A.,et al. (2013). Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) Of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290-306.

    Griffin, J. A., & Friedman, S. L. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health

    Belsky, J., et al. (2007). Are there long‐term effects of early child care?. Child development, 78(2), 681-701.



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Child Language Development: Language Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Language Milestones measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)- Communication Subscale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Squires, J., Bricker, D. D., & Twombly, E. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


  2. Child Language Development: Language Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Language Milestones measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)- Communication Subscale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Squires, J., Bricker, D. D., & Twombly, E. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


  3. Child Language Development: Child Vocalizations [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Child Vocalizations measured by LENA processing software

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  4. Child Language Development: Communicative Development [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Communicative Development measured by MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Fenson, L. (2002). MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: User's guide and technical manual. Paul H. Brookes.


  5. Child Language Development: Verbal Comprehension [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Verbal Comprehension measured by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-fourth edition (WPPSI-IV)- Vocabulary Subscale (may be replaced after pilot testing)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence—fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.


  6. Child Language Development: Language Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Language Milestones measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)- Communication Subscale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Squires, J., Bricker, D. D., & Twombly, E. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


  7. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Behavior measured by NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Mother-Child Interaction Task (positive/negative mood, activity level, sustained attention, positive engagement)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Griffin, J. A., et al. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health. Adapted script from mother-child-interaction at 15 months.


  8. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)- Problem Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.


  9. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)- Problem Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Briggs-Gowan, et al. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.


  10. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior/Problems [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Behavior/Problems measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in review, 21(8), 265-271.


  11. Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Behavior measured by NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Mother-Child Interaction Task (positive/negative mood, activity level, sustained attention, positive engagement)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Griffin, J. A., et al. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health. Adapted script from mother-child-interaction at 15 months.


  12. Child Brain Function: Resting Brain Function (Alpha, Gamma and Theta power) [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by EEG

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff‐Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.

    Otero, G. A., Pliego-Rivero, F. B., Fernández, T., & Ricardo, J. E. E. G. (2003). EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(10), 1918-1925.

    Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., & Group, B. C. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1327-1338.


  13. Child Brain Function: Language Related Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an event-related potential (ERP) task that will be administered. The specific stimuli will be selected following pilot testing.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    References:

    Tomalski, P., et al. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.

    Otero, G. A., et al. (2003). EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(10), 1918-1925.

    Marshall, P. J., et al. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1327-1338.


  14. Child Health: Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by hair cortisol

    Reference:

    Ursache, A., Merz, E. C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K. G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.

    Meyer, J., Novak, M., Hamel, A., & Rosenberg, K. (2014). Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair. Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE, (83).

    Davenport, M. D., Tiefenbacher, S., Lutz, C. K., Novak, M. A., & Meyer, J. S. (2006). Analysis of endogenous cortisol concentrations in the hair of rhesus macaques. General and comparative endocrinology, 147(3), 255-261.


  15. Child Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]

    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™)

    Reference:

    Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.


  16. Child Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™)

    Reference:

    Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.


  17. Child Health: Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 1 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.


  18. Child Health: Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 1 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.


  19. School Achievement and Behavior: School Test Scores for Target Child's Siblings [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  20. School Achievement and Behavior: Student Behavioral Data for Target Child [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  21. School Achievement and Behavior: Student Behavioral Data for Target Child's Siblings [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]

    Measured by administrative data.

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).


  22. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  23. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  24. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insufficiency [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Food Insufficiency measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  25. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  26. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  27. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insufficiency [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Food Insufficiency measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  28. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  29. Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    US Census Bureau


  30. Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insufficiency [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Food Insufficiency measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf


  31. Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of 10 items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference: study PIs


  32. Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of 10 items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference: study PIs


  33. Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of 10 items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference: study PIs


  34. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  35. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's full-time reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  36. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  37. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  38. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's full-time reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  39. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  40. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  41. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's full-time reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  42. Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference: study PIs


  43. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures since birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Child-Focused Expenditures since birth measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  44. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  45. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  46. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  47. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  48. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  49. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  50. Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  51. Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care, Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  52. Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36.

    National Study of Early Care and Education


  53. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  54. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  55. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  56. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items(see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  57. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items(see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  58. Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items(see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  59. Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  60. Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  61. Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  62. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  63. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  64. Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  65. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  66. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  67. Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  68. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.


  69. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf


  70. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.


  71. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf


  72. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.


  73. Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf


  74. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires


  75. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires


  76. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires


  77. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.


  78. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.


  79. Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.


  80. Maternal Physiological Stress: Maternal Hair Cortisol [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by maternal hair cortisol

    Reference:

    Ursache, A., Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.


  81. Maternal Mental Resources: Maternal Cognitive Resources [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by the Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test

    Reference:

    Zelazo, P.D., Anderson, J.E., Richler, J., Wallner-Allen, K., Beaumont, J.L., & Weintraub, S. (2013). II NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (CB): Measuring executive funtion and attention. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(4), 16-33.


  82. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  83. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  84. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.


  85. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education


  86. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education


  87. Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education


  88. Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  89. Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  90. Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  91. Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  92. Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  93. Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  94. Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale

    Reference:

    Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.


  95. Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale

    Reference:

    Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.


  96. Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale

    Reference:

    Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.


  97. Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  98. Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  99. Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  100. Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  101. Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  102. Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  103. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  104. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  105. Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf


  106. Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.


  107. Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.


  108. Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.


  109. Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  110. Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  111. Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.


  112. Maternal Physical Health: Body Mass Index [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]

    Body Mass Index measured by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.


  113. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Adult Word Count [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Adult Word Count measured by LENA Processing Software

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  114. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Adult Word Count [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Adult Word Count measured by LENA Processing Software

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  115. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Conversational Turns [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Conversational Turns measured by LENA Processing Software

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  116. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Conversational Turns [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Conversational Turns measured by LENA Processing Software

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.


  117. Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors measured using Parenting Interactions with Children: PICCOLO™ to code NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Mother-Child Interaction Task (adapted script)

    We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).

    Reference:

    Roggman, et al. (2013). Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) Of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290-306.

    Griffin, J. A., & Friedman, S. L. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health

    Belsky, J., et al. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care?. Child development, 78(2), 681-701.


  118. Maternal Epigenetic Age [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Reference:

    Fiorito, G., Polidoro, S., Dugue, P-A., Kivimaki, M., Ponzi, E., Matullo, G., Guarrera, S., Assumma, M.B., Georgiadis, P., Kyrtopoulos, S.A., Krogh, V., Palli, D., Panico, S., Sacerdota, C., Tumino, R., Chadeau-Hyam, M., Stringhini, S., Severi, G., Hodge, A.M., Giles, G.G., Marioni, R., Karlsson Linner, R., O'Halloran, A.M., Kenny, R.A., Layte, R., Baglietto, L., Robinson, O., McCrory, C., Milne, R.L., Vineis, P. (2017). Social adversity and epigenetic aging: a multi-cohort study on socioeconomic differences in peripheral blood DNA methylation. Nature, 7(16266), doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16391-5.


  119. Maternal DNA Methylation [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Reference:

    Hughes, A., Smart, M., Gorrie-Stone, T., Hannon, E., Mill, J., Bao, Y., Burrage, J., Schalkwyk, L., Kumari, M. (2018). Socioeconomic position and DNA methylation age acceleration across the life course. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(11, doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy155.


  120. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.


  121. Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.


  122. Maternal Discipline: Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.


  123. Maternal Discipline; Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]

    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 2 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items)

    Reference:

    Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.




Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   Eligibility: Mothers who just gave birth
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. mother 18 years or older;
  2. household income below the federal poverty threshold in the calendar year prior to the interview, counting the newborn;
  3. infant admitted to the newborn nursery and not requiring admittance to the intensive care unit;
  4. residence in the state of recruitment;
  5. mother not "highly likely" to move to a different state or country in the next 12 months;
  6. infant to be discharged in the custody of the mother;
  7. English or Spanish speaking (necessary for administration of instruments used to measure some of the child outcomes)

Exclusion Criteria:

Mothers will not be eligible unless all of the above seven criteria are met.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03593356


Locations
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United States, New York
12 hospitals in the following four metropolitan areas: New York, Omaha, New Orleans, and Twin Cities
New York, New York, United States, 10027
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Irvine
Columbia University
University of Wisconsin, Madison
New York University
University of Maryland, College Park
University of Nebraska
University of Minnesota
University of New Orleans
University of Michigan
Investigators
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Study Director: Greg Duncan, PhD University of California, Irvine
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Greg Duncan, University of California, Irvine:
Study Protocol  [PDF] June 27, 2019
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] June 27, 2019
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] February 8, 2018


Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Greg Duncan, Distinguished Professor, University of California, Irvine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03593356     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NIH R01 HD087384
First Posted: July 20, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 14, 2019
Last Verified: October 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Greg Duncan, University of California, Irvine:
Poverty
Income
Child Development
Brain Development