Psychosis Screening in Juvenile Justice (JJ-Psychosis)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03583073|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : July 11, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 5, 2019
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Psychotic Disorders Psychosis Nos/Other||Behavioral: Enhanced Referral/Linkage to Care Behavioral: Standard Care||Not Applicable|
Among adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System (JJS), an estimated 3% have a psychotic illness, and it can be reasonably assumed that many more experience subthreshold psychotic-spectrum symptoms that may be indicative of risk. Evidence suggests that as many as 25% of those with first episode psychosis (FEP) have their first contact with care through criminal justice agencies. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), a negative prognostic factor, has been shown to be longer among those within the criminal justice system. This suggests that youth with psychotic symptoms who end up in the JJS may not receive appropriate mental health care. This study will first track mental health referrals for JJ youth with psychosis-spectrum symptoms in Phase 1, a standard care condition, and then an enhanced referral and linkage to care model will be investigated in Phase 2 of the study.
The current study will be conducted in the Rhode Island Family Court Juvenile Intake Department where all youth receive a mental health screen (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument - 2nd Ed; MAYSI -2). All youth who screen positive on the MAYSI-2 Thought Disturbance scale, and a second gate screening with the Prodromal Questionnaire - Brief Version (PQ-B), will be given referral information for Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) services by JJS staff. Enrolled families will also participate in the research assessment, regardless of whether they pursue the CSC referral, which involves the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes [SIPS] and other measures to thoroughly assess history of psychotic symptoms, comorbid difficulties, and mental health care engagement. A comparison sample of youth who screen negative on the MAYSI-2 Thought Disturbance subscale will also be assessed with the SIPS to determine accuracy of the MAYSI-2/PQ-B screen in the identification of psychosis-risk. During the first phase of the study, JJS staff will follow standard procedures in referring youth to the state CSC. In the second phase of the study, JJS will be instructed in an enhanced referral/linkage to care protocol, including a "warm hand-off" where referrals will be put in direct and immediate contact with CSC staff. CSC staff will also be trained in procedures to increase the likelihood of follow through with the referral to the CSC. Three month follow-up qualitative interviews and quantitative assessments regarding referral pathways, bottlenecks and gaps in care, youth psychiatric symptoms, and JJS contacts will be conducted. This design maps onto the stated goals of PAR 16- 264 including: 1) Identify baseline rates of DUP within the JJS (and the investigators will also look at rates of psychosis-spectrum symptoms and disorders); 2) Map referral pathways to CSC; 3) Identify implementation and service level factors that create bottlenecks and gaps in linkage to the CSC; 4) Investigate the relationship between treatment linkage and psychotic symptoms/DUP; and, 5) Pilot test feasible strategies for reducing DUP.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||270 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||The intervention will have two phases: 1) a Standard Care (baseline control) condition, followed by, 2) an Enhanced Referral/Linkage to Care condition. Because this is a roll-out trial, the two conditions will be compared using a non-randomized open trial design.|
|Masking:||Single (Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Reducing the Duration of Untreated Illness Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System With Psychosis-Spectrum Disorders|
|Actual Study Start Date :||September 1, 2018|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||August 31, 2021|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||March 30, 2022|
Active Comparator: Standard Care/Baseline Control
Standard care is the typical process of referral to mental health services for Juvenile Justice (JJ) youth who screen positive for mental heath concerns at intake. For this study, baseline control participants will be referred to the Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) clinic due to their endorsement of psychosis-spectrum symptoms.
Behavioral: Standard Care
Referral to the Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) clinic
Experimental: Enhanced Referral/Linkage to Care
The experimental condition will include a psychoeducational and motivational enhancement protocol completed at the JJS intake appointment, paired with a "warm hand-off" referral to the CSC for evaluation and initiation of mental health services.
Behavioral: Enhanced Referral/Linkage to Care
The JJ worker reviews with the family psychoeducation material about the role of mental health care in emotional/behavioral problems. The JJ intake worker will contact the CSC program directly with the family for a "warm hand-off". The CSC worker will speak with the parent and arrange for an intake evaluation. For families already receiving treatment, the CSC referral will be for consultation. Via phone, the CSC clinician will use a motivational interviewing style to encourage families to attend the appointment. Three and seven days after referral, the JJ worker will text the caregiver to see if the CSC appointment was kept. If not, the JJ worker will text the parent the CSC phone number and also ask permission to contact the CSC to assist the family in setting up another appointment.
- Treatment linkage/retention in CSC services [ Time Frame: 3-month follow-up ]The Child and Adolescent Services Assessment [CASA] is a parent-report instrument designed to assess at follow-up the use of mental health services for youth across 31 settings including inpatient, outpatient, and informal services. Collateral information on treatment attendance (attendance at first treatment appointment and total number of treatment sessions attended) will also be collected by contacting each juveniles' treatment provider at the 3-month follow-up. A release of information is requested at baseline, for both primary care physicians (PCP) and their mental health provider/agency, as part of the court intake process. The consent form will also contain language allowing the research team to collect this information from the youth's treatment providers.
- Psychosis-spectrum symptoms and diagnoses [ Time Frame: 3-month follow-up ]The Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS) is a semi-structured interview that assesses psychosis-spectrum experiences. The SIPS takes approximately 45-90 minutes to complete and assesses the presence and severity of positive, negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Respondents are determined to meet criteria for psychosis-spectrum disorders/syndromes based on their endorsement and description of five positive symptoms including odd or delusional thoughts, paranoia/suspiciousness, grandiosity, perceptual abnormalities, and disorganized communication. Factors such as the frequency and intensity of positive symptoms, along with the level of conviction (belief that the experience is real) and interference (i.e. associated distress or impairment), are used to determine whether individuals meet criteria for full-threshold psychosis or any of three risk syndromes. Symptom severity ratings and diagnostic status will used to track illness over the follow-up period.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03583073
|Contact: Anthony Spirito, PhDfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Kathleen Kemp, PhD||(401) email@example.com|
|United States, Rhode Island|
|Rhode Island Family Court||Recruiting|
|Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 02903|
|Contact: Kathleen Kemp, PhD 401-793-8269 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Kevin Richard, BA 401-458-5262 KRichard@courts.ri.gov|
|Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 02912|
|Principal Investigator: Anthony Spirito, PhD|
|Principal Investigator:||Anthony Spirito, PhD||Brown University|