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Pilot Study of Time Restricted Feeding as a Weight Loss Intervention

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03571048
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 27, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 9, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Colorado, Denver

Brief Summary:
The circadian timing of Energy Intake (EI) has emerged as a key factor in the regulation of body weight. Studies have suggested that eating later in the evening or at night when the circadian system is promoting sleep adversely influences weight loss. In contrast, restricting EI to a short window during waking hours and extending the length of the overnight fast (i.e., time restricted feeding, TRF) may be a practical and useful weight loss strategy. The overall objective of this proposal is to provide a foundation to inform the design of a future large-scale trial to evaluate the efficacy of TRF in generating weight loss. The investigators aims are to: 1) Assess processes critical for the success of a large-scale trial comparing the efficacy of a reduced calorie diet with time restricted feeding (RCD+TRF) versus standard RCD on weight loss; 2) Develop methodology to assess compliance to the RCD+TRF versus standard RCD program and collect preliminary data on whether the programs have differential effects on free-living behaviors (EI, appetite, physical activity, and sedentary behavior); and 3) Measure metabolic responses to RCD+TRF versus standard RCD to determine candidate mechanisms related to weight loss at 12wks and weight maintenance at 6mo post-intervention. The investigators primary hypothesis is that weight loss will be greater in the TRF group compared to the RCD group.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Obesity Behavioral: Reduced Calorie Diet (RCD) Behavioral: Time Restricted Feeding (TRF) Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The circadian timing of energy intake (EI) has emerged as a key factor in the regulation of body weight. Studies have suggested that eating meals later in the evening or during the biological night when the circadian system is promoting sleep adversely influences the success of weight loss therapy. In contrast, restricting EI to a short window during waking hours and extending the length of the overnight fast (i.e., time restricted feeding, TRF) may be a practical and useful strategy for promoting weight loss and weight maintenance. However, potential benefits of adding TRF to a weight loss program have yet to be evaluated in a well-controlled clinical study. The overall objective of this proposal is to provide a foundation to inform the design of a future large-scale trial to evaluate the efficacy of TRF in generating weight loss. The investigators overall hypothesis is that feasibility, adherence, and acceptability of a weight loss intervention using TRF in the setting of a reduced calorie diet (RCD) - RCD+TRF - will be similar to compliance with an intervention using a reduced calorie diet alone (RCD), suggesting acceptability for a future large-scale trial. In this 12-week pilot and feasibility study, 30 overweight and obese individuals will be randomized 1:1 to RCD+TRF (EI restricted to a 10-hour window starting 1 hour from habitual waking time) or standard RCD (no restriction on feeding duration). Additional follow-up will occur at 6 months to collect pilot data on weight maintenance. Measures include feasibility, acceptability and adherence to the interventions, body weight, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), EI (smart phone application), physical activity (PA, accelerometery), glucose variability (continuous glucose monitoring, CGM), sleep (questionnaires and polysomnography), and nocturnal substrate metabolism (room calorimetry). The specific aims (SA) are as follows:

Specific Aim 1a. To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week TRF intervention compared to a standard dietary weight loss intervention (i.e. RCD). Feasibility of enrollment and retention, and acceptability of the intervention will be assessed in adults with obesity meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria proposed for the future large-scale trial. The investigators will assess adherence to the weight loss programs, as measured objectively with a novel smartphone application and verified with CGM data, and subjectively with the use of questionnaires.

Specific Aim 1b. To assess the efficacy of RCD+TRF compared to RCD alone in producing weight loss at 12 weeks and reducing the risk of weight regain after 6 months of follow-up.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 95 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Pilot Study of Time Restricted Feeding as a Weight Loss Intervention in Overweight and Obese Adults
Actual Study Start Date : June 1, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 14, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : November 12, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Reduced Calorie Diet (RCD)
Participants in this group will focus on daily calorie restriction as their dietary weight loss strategy.
Behavioral: Reduced Calorie Diet (RCD)
Participants will be given an individualized calorie goal. Participants in this group will also receive a 12 week comprehensive group-based behavioral weight loss program and will be instructed in specific strategies to support RCD.

Experimental: Time Restricted Feeding (TRF)
Participants in this group will focus on time restricted feeding in addition to daily calorie restriction as their dietary weight loss strategy.
Behavioral: Reduced Calorie Diet (RCD)
Participants will be given an individualized calorie goal. Participants in this group will also receive a 12 week comprehensive group-based behavioral weight loss program and will be instructed in specific strategies to support RCD.

Behavioral: Time Restricted Feeding (TRF)
Participants will be given an individualized calorie goal. Participants in this group will also receive a 12 week comprehensive group-based behavioral weight loss program and will be instructed in specific strategies to support RCD. Participants in this group will also instructed to eat only during a window of 10 hours, starting within 3 hours of waking. They will also be instructed in specific strategies to support TRF including: strategies to deal with hunger outside eating windows, distraction techniques, and choosing a balanced diet/appropriate portions during feeding windows.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Changes in Body Weight [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Body weight will be measured via clinic scale.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Changes in Body Composition [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Body composition will be assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

  2. Changes in Objectively Measured Energy Intake (Camera) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    All energy intake events will be recorded using the camera function on a cell phone application

  3. Changes in Objectively Measured Meal Timing (Camera) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Time stamps of all energy intake events will be recorded using the camera function on a cell phone application

  4. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    REE will be measured using indirect calorimetry.

  5. Changes in Physical Activity [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Physical activity will be measured with activity monitors.

  6. Changes in Sedentary Behavior [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Sedentary behavior will be measured with activity monitors.

  7. Changes in daily glucose patterns [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Measured using continuous glucose monitors

  8. Changes in free-living sleep patterns [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Sleep will be assessed by wrist actigraphy

  9. Changes in Self-Reported Dietary Adherence [ Time Frame: Baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 ]
    Adherence to prescribed diet will be assessed with a questionnaire.

  10. Changes in appetite [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Appetite will be assessed with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaire.

  11. Changes in mood [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Mood will be assessed with questionnaires.

  12. Changes in quality of life [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Quality of life will be assessed with questionnaires.

  13. Objective measures of nocturnal energy expenditure [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Nocturnal energy expenditure will be measured by room calorimetry

  14. Objective measures of sleep [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]
    Sleep will be measured in the laboratory by polysomnography


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. 6 Month Post-Intervention Follow-Up Body Weight [ Time Frame: 24 weeks after completion of the 12-week intervention (i.e. at week 36) ]
    Body weight will be measured via clinic scale.

  2. 6 Month Post-Intervention Follow-Up Body Composition [ Time Frame: 24 weeks after completion of the 12-week intervention (i.e. at week 36) ]
    Body composition will be assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

  3. 6 Month Post-Intervention Follow-Up Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) measurement [ Time Frame: 24 weeks after completion of the 12-week intervention (i.e. at week 36) ]
    REE will be measured using indirect calorimetry.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 50 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adult males and females with a BMI of 27-45 kg/m2 and weight stable over the previous 6 months;
  • Age, 18-50 years old;
  • Passing medical and physical screening, and analysis of blood and urine screening samples;
  • Typical eating duration >12 hours per day (assessed by questionnaires);
  • Own a smartphone

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy or lactation for women (women who are >6 months postpartum with no plans of becoming pregnant in the next year and who are not currently lactating can be included; oral contraceptives will be allowed if medication has been consistent for the prior 6 months)
  • Postmenopausal women (menopausal status will be assessed during the history and physical, with requirement of self-reported regular menstrual cycles for the last year; women who have undergone hysterectomy but with ovaries in place who continue to have regular menstrual symptoms can be included)
  • Being considered unsafe to participate as determined by the study physician;
  • History of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, untreated thyroid, renal, hepatic diseases, dyslipidemia or any other medical condition affecting weight or lipid metabolism;
  • History of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C (self-report);
  • Taking medications affecting weight or energy intake/energy expenditure in the last 6 months, including weight loss medications, antipsychotic drugs or other medications as determined by the study physician;
  • Having abnormal blood chemistry (eGFR<45mL/min, AST or ALT >3 times the upper limit of normal) or as deemed significant by the study physician;
  • Being a smoker or having been a smoker in the 3 months prior to their screening visit;
  • Working night shifts;
  • Extreme early or extreme late chronotype as determined by the Munich Chronotype questionnaire37;
  • Night eating syndrome (at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal and/or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week) as assessed with meal pattern assessment questionnaire;
  • For participants completing the PSG studies, greater than moderate sleep apnea (score high risk ≥ 2 or more categories on the Berlin Questionnaire). Participants completing the primary weight loss intervention will not be excluded based on Berlin OSA risk scores.
  • For participants completing the PSG studies, use of medications affecting sleep (benzodiazepines and other sleep aids, as determined by study physician). Participants completing the primary weight loss intervention will not be excluded based on use of medications affecting sleep.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03571048


Locations
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United States, Colorado
University of Colorado Anschutz Health and Wellness Center
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Colorado, Denver
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Elizabeth Thomas, MD University of Colorado Anschutz Health and Wellness Center
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Responsible Party: University of Colorado, Denver
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03571048    
Other Study ID Numbers: 18-0487
First Posted: June 27, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 9, 2021
Last Verified: February 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Weight Loss
Body Weight Changes
Body Weight