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Randomized Controlled Trial of Big Brothers Big Sisters Mentoring for Prevention of Crime and Delinquency

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03495635
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : April 12, 2018
Last Update Posted : April 12, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Laura and John Arnold Foundation
Herrera Consulting Group, LLC
Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Illinois at Chicago

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) community-based mentoring (CBM) program for prevention of crime and delinquency/conduct problems, including risk and protective factors for these outcomes. Approximately 2,500 youth ages 10-16 will be randomly assigned to either the CBM program or an untreated control group. Study outcomes will be assessed over a 4-year period via both youth- and parent-report surveys and official records of police/court contact (e.g., arrests).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Crime Juvenile Delinquency Behavioral: Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring Program Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) community-based mentoring (CBM) program for prevention of crime and delinquency/conduct problems, including risk and protective factors for these outcomes. Participants will be recruited from 16 BBBSA affiliates, which are located in different regions of the U.S. and were invited to serve as sites for the study using a random selection process. The study sample will consist of approximately 2,500 youth ages 10-16 whose parents seek services from one of the participating BBBSA affiliates during the study enrollment period and for whom consent/assent to participate in the research is obtained. Enrolled youth will be randomly assigned to participate in the CBM program (treatment group) or to a control group (no BBBSA programming during the youth's 4-year period of study participation). Youth will be assigned in a 3:1 ratio to the treatment and control groups. Youth and parents will complete survey measures both at study enrollment, prior to notification of assignment to control or treatment group, and 18 months later. Official records of police/court contact (e.g., arrests), with separate parent/guardian consent as provided at study enrollment, will be obtained both for the period preceding each youth's enrollment in the study and for a 4-year period following enrollment.

The study has 4 specific aims:

  1. To determine the effects of participation in the Big Brothers Big Sisters CBM program on youth offending as measured by police/court records, i.e., person offense, property offense, drug law violation, public order offense, or status offense.
  2. To determine the effects of participation in the BBBS CBM program on the likelihood of youths' involvement in delinquent behavior/conduct problems as assessed by youth and parent reports.
  3. To determine the effects of BBBS CBM program participation on the likelihood of youths' involvement in substance use as assessed by self-reports of alcohol use to point of drunkenness, tobacco, or illicit drug use.
  4. To determine the effects of BBBS CBM program participation on both risk and protective factors for delinquent/criminal behavior, such as aggression, depressive symptoms, association with deviant peers, self-control, and school connectedness, as assessed by youth and/or parent reports, and to explore the role of these effects in mediating effects of program participation on offending, delinquent behavior, and substance use.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 2500 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Enrolled participants will be assigned randomly to participate in the Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring Program (treatment group) or to a wait-list control group that is not eligible to participate in the program for a period of 4 years.
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: An independent survey research center will collect the 18-month follow-up surveys from participating youth and parents; those collecting these data will be kept blind to intervention vs. control group status until all outcome measures have been administered on each survey; juvenile justice authorities providing arrest record information will be masked to study arm of participants as will all those on the research team who are involved in coding this information.
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Randomized Controlled Trial of the Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring Program for Prevention of Crime and Juvenile Delinquency
Actual Study Start Date : February 2, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2023

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: BBBS Community-Based Mentoring
Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring Program
Behavioral: Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring Program
One-to-one mentoring provided by an adult volunteer with training and ongoing monitoring and support from program staff.

No Intervention: Control
Not eligible to participate in a Big Brothers Big Sisters mentoring program, but may participate in other mentoring programs.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Arrest [ Time Frame: 4 years ]
    0/1 indicator based on official police/court/juvenile office records of any of the following types of offenses—person offense, property offense, drug law violation, public order offense, or status offense

  2. Arrest [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    0/1 indicator based on official police/court/juvenile office records of any of the following types of offenses—person offense, property offense, drug law violation, public order offense, or status offense

  3. Delinquency [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    0/1 indicator based on youth and parent report using 13 items from the Add Health Study (Bearman et al., 1997)

  4. Substance use [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    0/1 indicator based on youth report of alcohol use to point of drunkenness, tobacco, or illicit drug use


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Truancy [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    3-item youth-report measure (2 items from Herrera et al., 2013)

  2. Association with deviant peers [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    A single measure computed as the average of scores on continuous youth-report measure (Elliott et al., 1996) and one-item (0/1) parent-report indicator from Youth Risk Index (Herrera et al., 2013) after each score has been standardized to mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1.

  3. School suspensions [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    One-item (0/1) parent-report indicator from Youth Risk Index (Herrera et al., 2013)

  4. Depressive symptoms [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Depressive Symptoms Pediatric Self-Report - Short Form from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) (Irwin et al., 2010). Lower scores indicate a better outcome

  5. Impulsivity [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    A single measure computed as the average of scores on continuous youth- and parent-report scales (Hay & Meldrum, 2010) after each score has been standardized to mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1.

  6. Conventional values [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Belief in the Moral Order scale of the Communities That Care Youth Survey (Arthur et al., 2002)

  7. Aggressive behavior [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    A single measure computed as the average of scores on youth-report Aggression Scale (Orpinas & Frankowski, 2001) and parent-report Parent's Checklist from the Fast Track Project: https://fasttrackproject.org/techrept/p/pcl/ after each score has been standardized to mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1.

  8. Academic success [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    4-item measure of grades in core subjects (Herrera et al., 2013)

  9. Positive parenting [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report Positive Parenting subscale from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (Essau et al., 2006)

  10. Parent involvement [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report Involvement subscale from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (Essau et al., 2006)

  11. Parental monitoring and supervision [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report Poor Monitoring/Supervision subscale from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (Essau et al., 2006)

  12. Parental consistent discipline [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report Inconsistent Discipline subscale from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (Essau et al., 2006)

  13. Family relationships [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report General Functioning scale of the Family Assessment Device (Epstein et al., 1983)

  14. Perceived social support from family members [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988): Family Members subscale

  15. Perceived social support from peers [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988): Peers subscale

  16. Perceived social support from special person [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988): Significant Others subscale

  17. School engagement [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Behavioral Engagement subscale of the Engagement versus Disaffection with Learning Scale (Skinner et al., 2009)

  18. Goal-setting and pursuit [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report Goal Orientation scale from Child Trends: https://www.childtrends.org/research/research-by-topic/positive-indicators-project/goal-orientation/

  19. Involvement in out-of-school-time activities [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Parent-report (Herrera et al., 2007)

  20. Volunteering in the community [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report single-item (Herrera et al., 2013)

  21. Life satisfaction [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report single-item measure from WHO's 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School Age Children Survey: http://filer.uib.no/psyfa/HEMIL-senteret/HBSC/2006_Mandatory_Questionnaire.pdf

  22. Self-esteem [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Global Self-Esteem subscale of brief version of the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (DuBois et al., 1996; Silverthorn et al., 2017)

  23. Happiness [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Positive Affect Pediatric Self-Report - Short Form from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) (Forrest et al., 2017)

  24. Grit [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report Grit Scale for Children (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009)

  25. Social competence [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Social Competencies Scale of the Youth Outcome Measures Online Toolbox (Muris, 2001)

  26. Special interest development [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report (adapted from DuBois & Keller, 2017)

  27. Hopeful future expectations [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report abbreviated version of the Hopeful Future Expectations Scale (Bowers et al., 2012)

  28. Career exploration [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report 2 items (adapted from Herrera et al., 2011)

  29. College exploration [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report 1 item (adapted from Herrera et al., 2011)

  30. Self-advocacy [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report (Jarjoura et al., 2017)

  31. Coping efficacy [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    Youth-report 1 item adapted from Coping Efficacy Scale (Sandler et al., 2000)



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   10 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

  • youth is 10 years of age or older
  • youth is likely to be eligible for the Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring program as determined by initial assessment of program staff

Exclusion criteria:

  • youth has a severe learning, cognitive or other intellectual disability as reported by the parent
  • parent does not both speak and read either English or Spanish
  • youth does not have a sibling who is already a study participant
  • youth has been matched with a Big Brother/Sister through one of the affiliate's programs in the past
  • youth has a sibling currently receiving services from the affiliate for whom services were initiated (i.e., inquiry was made) prior to start of the study
  • youth belongs to a group that the affiliate is excluding from study participation based on previous agreement with the research team
  • youth is designated as an exception case by affiliate staff (each affiliate will have the opportunity to exclude up to 4% of study-eligible youth from the research prior to consent and random assignment for any reason deemed appropriate (e.g., perceived high need of the youth))

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03495635


Contacts
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Contact: David L DuBois, PhD 312-413-9806 dldubois@uic.edu
Contact: Julius Rivera, B.A. 312-996-4214 jriver40@uic.edu

Locations
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United States, Illinois
University of Illinois at Chicago Recruiting
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60608
Contact: David L. DuBois, PhD    312-413-9806    dldubois@uic.edu   
Contact: Julius Rivera, B.A.    312-996-4214    jriver40@uic.edu   
Principal Investigator: David L. DuBois, PhD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Illinois at Chicago
Laura and John Arnold Foundation
Herrera Consulting Group, LLC
Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: David L DuBois, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago
Principal Investigator: Carla Herrera, PhD Herrera Consulting Group, LLC

Study Data/Documents: Individual Participant Data Set  This link exits the ClinicalTrials.gov site
Identifier: osf.io/8ukfv

Publications:
Bearman, P. S., Jones, J., & Udry, J. R. (1997). The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Research design. Retrieved from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/addhealth.
Bowers, E. P., Geldhof, G. J., Schmid, K. L., Napolitano, C. M., Minor, K., & Lerner, J. V. (2012). Relationships with important nonparental adults and positive youth development: An examination of youth self-regulatory strengths as mediators. Research in Human Development, 9, 298-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2012.729911
DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Phillips, R. S. C., & Lease, A. M. (1996). Early adolescent self-esteem: A developmental-ecological framework and assessment strategy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 543-579.
Essau, C. A., Sasagawa, S., & Frick, P. J. (2006). Psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 597-616.
Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster Family Assessment Device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171-180.
Herrera, C., Grossman, J. B., Kauh, T. J., Feldman, A. F., & McMaken, J. (2007). Making a difference in schools: The Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
Herrera, C., Linden, L. L., Arbreton, J. A. & Grossman, J. B. (2011). Testing the impact of Higher Achievement's year-round out-of-school-time program on academic outcomes. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
Jarjoura, G. R. et al. (2017). The Evaluation of The Mentoring Enhancement Demonstration Program. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Manuscript in preparation.
Muris, P. (2001). A brief questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy in youths. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 145-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010961119608
Orpinas P, & Frankowski R. (2001). The aggression scale: a self-report measure of aggressive behavior for young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21, 51-68.
Silverthorn, N., DuBois, D. L., Lewis, K. M., Reed, A., Bavarian, N., Day, J., . . . Flay, B. R. (2017). Effects of a school-based social-emotional and character development program on self-esteem levels and processes: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. SAGE Open, 7(3), 1-12. doi:10.1177/2158244017713238
Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., & Furrer, C. J. (2009). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children's behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 493-525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013164408323233
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2
Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 389. doi:10.1177=0022427896033004002

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Responsible Party: University of Illinois at Chicago
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03495635     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 20170291
First Posted: April 12, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 12, 2018
Last Verified: October 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: At the study's conclusion, all individual participant data will be de-identified and made publicly available on the Open Science Framework website along with survey instruments and any code used to clean and analyze the data.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Clinical Study Report (CSR)
Analytic Code
Time Frame: Data will become available August 2024 and will be permanently available thereafter
URL: http://NA

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by University of Illinois at Chicago:
mentoring
prevention